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APPA Glossary


A.C.Alternating current.
AARAir-to-air recovery system.
AASHEAssociation for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education.
ABATEMENTA complete or partial cancellation of a levy imposed by a governmental unit. Abatements usually apply to tax levy, special assessment, and service charges.
ACCOUNTING PROCEDUREThe arrangement of all processes that discover, record, and summarize financial information to produce financial statements and reports as well as to provide internal control.
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLEAmount owed an open account from private persons, firms, or corporations for goods and services furnished by an organization.
ACCRETIONThe buildup of land along a beach or shore by deposits of waterborne or airborne sand, sediment, or other material.
ACCRUAL BASISThe basis of accounting under which all items are recorded when incurred. Revenues are recorded when earned and expenditures are recorded as soon as they result in liabilities even though the actual receipt of the revenue or payment of the expenditure may take place, in whole or in part, in another accounting period.
ACIDIFICATIONOne of the types of degradation to the soil that can take place as a result of environmental pollution, along with contamination, desertification, or erosion.
ACMAsbestos Containing Material.
ACQUISITION ADJUSTMENTPremium paid for a physical asset over and above original cost less depreciation.
ACUPCCAmerican College & University Presidents Climate Commitment.
ADAAmericans with Disabilities Act, requiring public and private sector organizations to adhere to certain standards intended to remove barriers for persons with various types of disabilities.
ADAAGThe set of architectural guidelines that directs the design of facilities and infrastructure, as mandated by ADA.
ADAPTATION/RENOVATION/MODERNIZATIONThe improvement, addition, or expansion of facilities by work performed to change the interior alignment of space or the physical characteristics of an existing facility so it can be used more effectively, be adapted for new use, or comply with existing codes. Includes the total expenditures required to meet evolving technological, programmatic, or regulatory demands.
ADEQUATE FACILITY/STRUCTURE/SPACEA facility, structure, or space that is fully capable of supporting its current use without modification or repairs (beyond currently funded routine maintenance) and has an acceptable level of reliability.
ADJUSTMENT FACTORA method by which a weekly multiplier is determined. For example, if a task is required to be accomplished once per week, it is assigned an adjustment factor of 1.00. If the task is altered to be accomplished every other week or biweekly, then the factor becomes 0.50.
AERATEThe process of making holes or slits in turf to improve or alter the physical soil conditions and to stimulate plant growth. Aeration increases air infiltration, water percolation, and plant nutrient mobility into the root zones. A cultural practice used to correct soil compaction.
AERIAL LIFTHydraulically operated aerial tower used for ascent and tree entry, usually mounted on a large truck. Line crews use some as short as 35 feet for clearing cables and streetlights. Most forestry departments use towers of 45 to 55 feet for trimming and removal operations. Sometimes used to replace burned-out floodlights at ballparks. Also known as a cherry picker.
AERIAL RESCUEThe process of getting help for and bringing down a tree worker who has been injured aloft.
AEROSOLA fine spray produced by pressurized gas that leaves very small droplets of solids or liquids suspended in the air.
AGENCY FUNDSResources held by an institution as custodian or fiscal agent for individual students, faculty, staff members, and organizations.
AGING OF RECEIVABLESAn analysis of individual accounts receivable according to the time elapsed after the billing or due date: usually the former.
AGREEMENT(1) A legally enforceable promise or promises between two or among several persons. (2) On a construction project, the document stating the essential terms of the construction contract that incorporates by reference the other contract documents. (3) The document setting forth the terms of the contract between the architect and owner or between the architect and consultant.
AIAAmerican Institute of Architects, a professional organization for architects.
ALHAnnual labor hours.
ALLOCATETo divide a lump sum into parts that are designated for expenditure by a specific organizational unit and/or for specific purposes, activities, or objects.
ALTERATIONSWork required to adjust interior arrangements or other physical characteristics of an existing facility/structure so that it may be adapted to, or utilized for, a new or changed use. Includes renovating a facility to meet modern standards.
AMENDMENTA chemical or mineral element added to the soil to improve soil characteristics, such as porosity, aeration, drainage, pH, and moisture retention.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)An act signed into U.S. law on July 26, 1990, that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability with regard to employment, programs, and services provided by state and local governments; goods and services provided by private companies; and in commercial facilities. The ADA contains requirements for new construction, for alterations or renovations to buildings and facilities, for improved access to existing facilities of private companies that provide goods or services to the public, and for state and local governments to provide access to programs offered to the public. The ADA also covers effective communication with people who have disabilities, establishes eligibility criteria that may restrict or prevent access, and requires reasonable modifications of policies and practices that may be discriminatory.
AMORTIZATIONThe gradual reduction, redemption, or liquidation of the balance of an account according to a specified schedule of times and amounts.
ANNUAL FLOWERSHerbaceous plants that live one year or less, during which time they grow, flower, produce seed, and die.
ANNUALSHerbaceous plants characterized by abundant flowering that live for one year or less, during which time they grow, flower, produce seed, and die.
ANNUITY AGREEMENTAn agreement whereby money or other property is made available to an institution or individual on the condition that the institution bind itself to pay stipulated amounts periodically to the donor or other designated individuals. The payments are to terminate at a time specified in the agreement.
ANNUITY FUNDSFunds acquired by an institution that are subject to annuity agreements.
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute.
APPAThe international association providing leadership in educational facilities through research, publications, professional development, and credentialing. Formerly known as the Association of Physical Plant Administrators.
APPRAISETo make an estimate of value, particularly of the value of property.
APPROPRIATIONAn expenditure authorization with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and time; a formal advance approval of an expenditure from designated resources that are available or estimated to be available.
APPROVED EQUALMaterial, equipment, or method approved by the client for use by the contractor as being acceptable as an equivalent in essential attributes to the material, equipment, or method specified in the contract documents.
AQUATIC LIFEA plant that must live partly or entirely in water for at least part of its life cycle.
ARBORA light, open structure of trees, shrubs, or vines closely planted, twined together in a self-supporting manner or supported on a light, latticework frame.
ARBORETUMA place where trees and related plants are grown for the purposes of education, research, or display.
ARBORICULTUREThe growing of, and caring for, trees for aesthetic purposes, such as specimen trees, street trees, and shade trees.
ARBORISTA position that provides expertise in the field of tree maintenance practices, including but not limited to pruning, planting, pest and disease diagnosis, and fertilization. Typically, this position functions as a working lead or supervisor of a tree crew or as the tree specialist for an organization. This position generally requires a moderate to extensive education, experience, and certification in the field of arboriculture.
AS-BUILTSA set of line drawings, typically prepared by a construction contractor, indicating the precise location of building components and systems.
ASBESTOS WASTE MANIFESTSpecial document required to be completed for the transport and disposal of asbestos containing material at a licensed lined landfill. The manifest must be signed by the receiving facility and must be maintained by the institution as part of the abatement documentation.
ASEXUAL PROPAGATIONPlant reproduction without the use of seed, as with cuttings, budding, layering, and grating.
ASFAssignable square feet.
ASHRAEAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Now known only by acronym.
ASMEAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASPHALT(1) A dark brown to black cementitious material, solid or semisolid, in which the predominating constituents are bitumens that occur in nature. (2) A similar material obtained artificially in reining petroleum, used in built-up roofing systems as a waterproofing agent. (3) A mixture of such substances with an aggregate for use in paving.
ASPHALTIC CONCRETE, Paving, BlacktopA mixture of asphalt and graded aggregate widely used as paving material over a prepared base; it is normally placed, shaped, and compacted while hot but can be mixed and placed without heat.
ASSIGNABLE SQUARE FEETMeasurement of an area that may be occupied and is acceptable for a designated purpose or function. Does not include walls, stairways, corridors, restrooms, parking facilities, or mechanical space.
ASTAboveground Storage Tank (typically holds heating oil, gasoline, or diesel on a campus).
ATTORNEY-IN-FACTA person authorized to act for or in behalf of another person or organization, to the extent prescribed in a written instrument known as a Power of Attorney.
AUDITExamination of documents, records, reports, systems, or internal control, accounting, and financial procedures, and other evidence to ascertain whether financial information is presented fairly in its entirety.
AUXILIARY ENTERPRISEAn entity that furnishes a service directly or indirectly to students, faculty, or staff and charges a fee directly related to, but not necessarily equal to, the cost of the service. The public may be served incidentally by some auxiliary enterprises. The services are essential elements in support of the institution's program and conceptually should be regarded as self-supporting.
AVULSION(1) A tearing away or separation by the force of water. (2) Land that is separated from upland or adjacent properties by the action of a stream or river cutting through the land to form a new stream bed.
AWWAAmerican Water Works Association.
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BALANCE SHEETA historical summary for a given economic entity of the assets, liabilities, and owner's equity (or fund balance).
BALANCED FERTILIZERA balanced-ratio fertilizer that contains equal amounts of the primary elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
BALLED AND BURLAPPED (B&B)Plants prepared for transplanting by digging them so that the soil immediately around the roots remains undisturbed. The ball of earth is then bound up in burlap or similar mesh fabric.
BANKED TURFA turf area that occurs on a slope considered too steep to mow with standard mowing equipment.
BASBuilding Automation Systems.
BASE MAPA map indicating the significant existing features of an area—such as the streets, rivers, parks, and rail lines—that serves as the foundation for subsequent mapping and planning.
BELOWWarning call given by tree trimmer or topper when dropping a piece of brush or wood.
BENCHMARKA relatively permanent object, natural or artificial, bearing a marked point with an elevation that is known above or below an adopted datum. Usually designated as a BM, such a mark is sometimes further qualified as a permanent benchmark (PBM) or a temporary benchmark (TBM).Benchmarks serve as references for topographical surveys and tidal observations.
BENCHMARKINGThe process of measuring activities considered critical to an organization’s success.
BEQUESTProperty or funds received through a will. Restrictions may or may not attach to use of the property or funds.
BERMA mound of earth, with a length greater than its width, constructed as a barrier or an aesthetic landform.
BIDA complete and properly signed proposal to do the work or designated portion thereof for the sums stipulated therein, supported with data called for by the bidding requirements.
BID BONDA form of bid security executed by the bidder as principal and by a surety. See also Bid Security.
BID DATEThe date established by the client for the receipt of bids.
BID FORMA form furnished to a bidder to be filed out, signed, and submitted as the bid.
BID SECURITYThe deposit of cash, certified check, cashier’s check, bank draft, money order, or bid bond submitted with a bid and serving to guarantee to the owner that the bidder, if awarded the contract, will execute the contract in accordance with the bidding requirements and the contract documents.
BIDDEROne who submits a bid for a prime contract with the owner; distinct from a subbidder who submits a bid to a prime bidder. Technically, a bidder is not a contractor on a specific project until a contract exists between the bidder and the owner.
BIDDING DOCUMENTThe advertisement or invitation to bid, instructions to bidder, the bid form, and the proposed contract documents, including any addenda issued before receipt of bids.
BIENNIALSHerbaceous plants that produce leafy growth, often in a rosette, from seed the first growing season, followed by dormancy during the winter months. The second season, the plants develop stalks with flowers and seeds, then die. Typically, biennials live more than 12 months but less than 36 months.
BILL OF LADINGA document issued by a carrier to a shipper, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. May not be used for hazardous or universal wastes.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLThe control of pests by means of naturally occurring agents, such as parasites, predators, and disease-producing organisms.
BITUMENAn asphalt of naturally occurring substances.
BODY THRUSTAn ascent method in which the climber pre-crotches a line and pulls himself or herself into the tree. The climber is either belayed or secured by a tautline hitch.
BONDA written promise to pay a specified sum of money, called the face value or principal amount, at a specified date or dates in the future, called the maturity dates, together with periodic interest at a specified rate.
BOND DISCOUNTThe excess of the face value of a bond over the price for which it is acquired or sold.
BOOK VALUE (of assets)Purchase price of an asset less any accumulated depreciation. In the case of an asset received as a gift, it is the appraised market value of the asset as of the date donated less any accumulated depreciation.
BOSUN’S CHAIRA nautical term for a wooden seat used by a climber in place of a saddle or bowline when an extensive amount of work must be done. A seat or “swingboard” is put into a bowline or double-bowline (one loop goes around the waist). The free end is used to tie a tautline hitch on the up-rope so that the climber may control his or her position in the tree. Originally used aboard ships and adopted by early arborists. Also known as a swingboard.
BRIBuilding Related Illness.
BRITISH THERMAL UNITIdentifying the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of liquid by one degree Fahrenheit.
BROADCAST MAINTENANCEThe deployment of specifically trained crews that each perform specific groundskeeping tasks and that move from one area to another of a site, such as a park or campus, doing all work of a particular type as needed. Examples include a tree crew or an irrigation crew.
BROADLEAF PLANTSPlants with leaves in which the veins are almost never parallel. These plants tend to have wider leaves than grasslike plants such as lilies, irises, palms, and orchids. Typically, these plants are dicotyledons (dicots).
BRUSH CHIPPERA specialized piece of equipment designed for shredding brush and limbs into small chips.
BRUSH CONTROLControl of woody plants and brush, usually by herbicides, weed killers, or mechanical methods.
BTUSee British Thermal Unit.
BUCKSTRAPLeather strap or 5/8-inch-diameter rope fastened onto a climber’s safety belt or tree saddle. Has a large snap-hook to fasten onto a D-ring after being passed around the tree limb or pole.
BUDGETA plan of proposed expenditures for a fixed period or for a specific project or program along with the proposed means of financing the expenditures.
BUILDING COMMISSIONINGA documented and systematic oversight process of ensuring that the owner’s functional needs are met, through the creation of a design intent agreement, review of construction documents, and verification through testing that all structural, mechanical, electrical, control, and environmental subsystems of a building are installed and will operate as designed.
BUILDING CORE AND SERVICE AREAThe floor area of a facility that is necessary for the operation of the facility and is not available for general occupancy. May include building lobbies, mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, telephone/communications/ server rooms, restrooms, custodial rooms, loading docks, and utility tunnels that are not used for any other purpose.
BULBA highly compressed subterranean stem having fleshy scales, such as an onion, lily, or tulip.
BULL LINE (BULL ROPE)Work rope, often 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter, used to pull up and lower large limbs or sections of trees. Used with snatch block and truck for heavy loads. Light loads often pulled by two or three workers with another snubbing the running part of the rope around the trunk of a nearby tree. Use of hydraulic crane units and towers has eliminated much of the need for this technique.
BULL SAWA heavy-duty saw used by a climber. Teeth usually include both cutters and rakers, as in a crosscut saw. Lightweight, one-person chainsaws have taken the place of most such saws.
BURIED TANKA tank that is either fully or partially buried (at least 10%) and contains only fuel oil that is used for heating on the premises. The tank may have no other purpose.
BUTT ROPEWork rope, 3/8 or 1/2 inch in diameter depending on size of limb; tied with a clove hitch or running bowline 6 inches above the cut line on a limb to be cut. When the cut is made, this rope enables the butt end to be lowered easily from a crotch or controlled by using a pull rope.
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C-BCost to benefit.
C.O.Change order.
CAAClean Air Act under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A set of federally enacted regulations controlling the amount of pollution to be tolerated from various sources.
CAAASubsequently enacted amendment to the Clean Air Act.
CABLE STRETCHERA piece of equipment that is used in installing cable in trees. When hardware has been properly placed on an eyebolt, the cable stretcher is fastened with ropes to the other limb just below the eye. The cable is placed in the come-along clamp of the cable stretcher, and the handle is worked on a ratchet (such as a bumperjack) until the cable is pulled properly snug. Then the other end is spliced around the lag or eye and the cable stretcher is removed. Also known as a cable grip.
CAD (Computer-Aided Design)A specialized application of computers primarily for the purpose of designing and precisely drawing architectural or engineering projects.
CADDComputer-aided drafting and design.
CAFMComputer-aided facilities management software.
CALCIUM CHLORIDEA granular salt-based chemical sometimes applied to earthen paths and roads to settle dust. Also used as a deicing agent on pavement. This material is toxic to plants and should be applied with care in their proximity.
CALIPER(1) Tool for rolling and lifting logs (with two cant hooks). A heavy handle has an iron hook hinged about 8 inches above an iron-shod tip. Similar to a peavey but has a flat tooth instead of a pike point. (2) May denote the diameter, or thickness, of a tree. Typically reserved for smaller nursery stock.
CAPILLARY WATERWater held in the capillaries or small pores of the soil that occurs either when free water passes through the soil or by capillary attraction from a wetter stratum.
CAPITAL (MAJOR) MAINTENANCE/REPAIRSPrevious or future repairs or replacement, paid from the capital funds budget and not funded by normal maintenance resources received in the annual operating budget cycle.
  • Repairs - work to restore damaged or worn-out assets/systems/components (e.g., large-scale roof replacement after a windstorm) to normal operating condition.
  • Replacement - an exchange of one fixed asset for another (e.g., replacing a transformer that blows up and shuts down numerous buildings) that has the same capacity to perform the same function.

Minimum dollar threshold levels for capital renewal are set by the building owners/ manager; however, these levels typically are in excess of $5,000 or $10,000.

CAPITAL ASSET MANAGEMENTThe identification and prioritization of facility and infrastructure physical, functional, and budgetary needs, spanning a multiyear timeframe. Includes the process of reinvesting into physical assets in support of the organizational mission, above and beyond normal routine operations and maintenance.
CAPITAL ASSETSInstitutional holdings, including buildings, infrastructure, and movable and stationary equipment, exceeding a policy-determined value.
CAPITAL BUDGETAn expenditure plan for adding to or improving plant or equipment. The means for financing for the current fiscal period are included. If a capital program is already underway, the capital budget will be the first year of the program. A capital program is sometimes referred to as a capital budget.
CAPITAL CONSTRUCTIONNew or alterations work, paid from the capital funds budget, that is performed to create new capital asset.
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTAny substantial physical facility built by the public or any major nonrecurring expenditure. The construction of schools, highways, and sewer and water systems and the landscaping of a park are all capital expenditures, as distinguished from operating costs.
CAPITAL PROJECT/CONSTRUCTIONA new facility, rehabilitation/renovation, or major maintenance that increases the value of the location, site, or campus (e.g., a new building) or extends the useful life of a facility. Includes construction and purchase of fixed equipment. (e.g., a replacement chiller). Minimum dollar threshold levels for capital projects are set by the building owners/manager; however, these levels typically are in excess of $5,000 or $10,000.
CAPITAL RENEWAL (CR)/REPLACEMENTThe systematic management process of planning and budgeting for known future cyclical repair and replacement requirements that extend the life and retain the usable condition of facilities and systems, not normally contained in the annual operating budget. Includes major activities that have a maintenance cycle in excess of one year (e.g., replace roofs, paint buildings, resurface roads). The cyclical replacement may be for all or a significant portion (e.g., the replacement of 50 percent or more of a building system component such as lighting system or roof system) as it reaches the end of its useful life, or of major components or infrastructure systems at or near the end of their useful life. These activities may extend the useful life and retain the usable condition of an associated capital asset (e.g., replacement of an HVAC system, extending the usable life of a facility). Replacement may be capitalized based on the Governmental Accounting Standards Board/Financial Accounting Standards Board (GASB/FASB) definition. A depreciation model calculates a sinking fund for this maintenance activity. Costs are estimated by a current replacement value that is derived by industry standard cost databases (e.g., Building News, Craftsman Book Company, Whitestone Research, Richardson General Construction Estimating Standards, RSMeans).
CARBON NEUTRALITYFocused on net zero energy operation and on reducing the use of fossil fuels. Achieved through a variety of energy reductions in campus buildings and operations, generation of renewable energy on campus, and, perhaps the most controversially, through the purchase of carbon offsets.
CARRYING CAPACITYLevel of use that can be accommodated and continued without irreversible impairment of the productivity of natural resources, the ecosystem, and the quality of air, land, and water resources.
CASA division of the American Chemical Society, an organization that plays a critical role in the world of Material Safety Data Sheets.
CASHCurrency, coin, checks, postal and express money orders, and bankers' drafts on hand or on deposit with an official occasionally designated as custodian of cash and bank deposits.
CASH BASISThe basis of accounting under which revenues are recorded when received in cash and expenditures are recorded when paid.
CASH DISCOUNTSAn allowance received or given when payment is completed within a stated period of time.
CATCH BASINA receptacle used for collecting surface drainage that is connected through drains or conduits to a stormwater system.
CDConstruction Documents, typically the final set of documents developed before bidding and/or construction (compare with SD, DD).
CdMCondition-based maintenance (i.e., conditioning monitoring).
CEFP (Certified Educational Facilities Professional)Advanced facilities management credential developed and offered by APPA.
CEMENTA material or a mixture of materials (without aggregate) that when in a plastic state, possesses adhesive and cohesive properties and hardens in place.
CENTRAL PLANTA term frequently used to describe a boiler plant, power plant, chiller plant, etc., that serves much or all of the campus.
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as the “Superfund Act” under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
CERTIFICATE OF RECYCLINGMaterials received under contract are destined for total recycling in accordance with EPA, OSHA, federal, state, and county regulations. A Guarantee of Environmental Compliance for Computer and Electronics Recycling activities.
CERTIFIED PESTICIDE APPLICATORA specially trained and certified individual authorized to apply certain pesticides. Certification and training programs are conducted by states, territories, and tribes in accordance with national standards.
CFMCubic feet per minute.
CGM (Certified Grounds Manager)Advanced grounds management certification developed and offered by the Professional Grounds Management Society.
CGT (Certified Grounds Technician)Certification program developed and offered by the Professional Grounds Management Society.
CHAIN OF CUSTODYA legal term that refers to the ability to guarantee the identity and integrity of a specimen (asbestos, for instance) from collection through the reporting of test results
CHANGE ORDERA written order to the contractor signed by the owner and the architect and issued after the execution of the contract, authorizing a change in the work or an adjustment in the contract sum or contract time. The contract sum and contract time may be changed only by change order. A change order signed by the contractor indicates his or her agreement therewith, including the adjustment in the contract sum or the contract time.
CHARACTERISTIC WASTEWastes that have not been specifically listed may still be considered a hazardous waste if exhibits one of the four characteristics defined in 40 CFR Part 261 Subpart C - ignitability (D001), corrosivity (D002), reactivity (D003), and toxicity (D004 - D043).
CHARGEBACKA charge or fee by the maintenance department or entity for which the maintenance work is done.
CHERRY PICKERHydraulically operated aerial tower used for ascent and tree entry, usually mounted on a large truck. Line crews use some as short as 35 feet for clearing cables and streetlights. Most forestry departments use towers of 45 to 55 feet for trimming and removal operations. Sometimes used to replace burned-out floodlights at ballparks. Also known as an aerial lift.
CHLOROSISA condition in which a plant or portion of a plant, particularly the leaves, is light green or yellowish, often cause by a nutrient deficiency.
CHURN RATEThe number of moves made within a 12-month period divided by the number of occupants during the same period.
CHWChilled water.
CLAY(1) A minute soil particle less than 0.002 millimeters in diameter. (2) Soil material containing more than 40 percent clay, less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent silt.
CLEARING ACCOUNTAn account used to accumulate total charges for credit for the purpose of either distributing them later among applicable accounts or transferring the net difference to the proper account.
CLERY ACTU.S. law for reporting crime statistics on campus.
CLIMATE NEUTRALITYExtends the range of interest beyond carbon dioxide to include other greenhouse gases regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, namely methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
CLIMBERArborist term for one who works aloft in a tree.
CLONEAn individual plant propagated asexually from another plant.
CMCorrective Maintenance. Also Construction Management.
CMaRConstruction Management at Risk, a type of delivery process for a construction project where the owner assumes much of the risk.
CMMSComputerized maintenance management system.
CMPCampus master plan.
COASTAL SHORELANDSAreas immediately adjacent to the ocean, all estuaries and associated wetlands, and all coastal lakes.
COMMON SUPPORT AREASThe portion of the facility usable area not attributed to any one occupant but that provides support for several or all occupant groups. Examples are cafeterias, vending areas, auditoriums, fitness facilities, building mailrooms, and first aid rooms. Facility assignable area includes the area devoted to common support services. These may be separately identified as a subcategory of facility assignable area if required.
COMMUNITYIncludes all those who considers themselves “constituents” of the institution (see Constituency).
COMPETENT PERSONDefined by OSHA as “one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.”
COMPETITIVE BENCHMARKINGA method by which a company seeks legal ways to learn about its competitors without their cooperation, then tries to implement some of the competitors’ practices or processes.
COMPETITIVE BIDDINGA procurement process mandated by many public-sector institutions, and often employed by private institutions, through which interested bidders offer a firm price to provide certain services, based on clearly articulated criteria. Often related to “low-bid” procurement.
COMPLETE FERTILIZERA fertilizer that contains all three of the primary elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, not necessarily in a balanced ratio.
COMPLIANCEThe act of adhering to, and demonstrating adherence to, a standard or regulation.
COMPOSTINGCollecting organic waste, such as food scraps and yard trimmings, and storing it under conditions designed to help it break down naturally. This resulting compost can then be used as a natural fertilizer.
CONCENTRATEA condensed formulation usually diluted with water or oil before use. Also, in a product name, the strongest commercially available formulation of the active ingredient.
CONCENTRATIONThe amount of active ingredient in a given weight of a mixture or volume of a solution. Recommendations and specifications for concentration of agricultural chemicals are frequently made on the basis of pound per unit volume of mixture or solution.
CONCRETEA composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of portland cement, water, sand, and stone.
CONCRETE BLOCKA hollow or solid concrete masonry unit consisting of portland cement and suitable aggregates combined with water.
CONSERVATIONManagement in a manner that avoids wasteful or destructive uses and provides for future availability; the act of conserving the environment.
CONSTITUENCYAll of the internal and external stakeholders of the institution, including various governing boards, neighbors, visitors, students, faculty, staff, etc.
CONSTRUCTIONAny combination of engineering, procurement, erection, installation, assembly, or fabrication activities involved to create a new facility/structure or to alter, add to, or rehabilitate an existing facility/structure and its support areas, such as parking, grounds, roadways, service buildings for power generation, and waste disposal. The construction costs of interior spaces include the costs of ceilings, lighting, life safety such as sprinklers, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, floor systems, carpeting, walls, doors, hardware, and special finishes.
CONTAMINATIONOne of the types of degradation to the soil that can take place as a result of environmental pollution, along with acidification, desertification, or erosion.
CONTINGENT FUNDAssets or other resources set aside to provide for unforeseen expenditures or for anticipated expenditures of uncertain amount.
CONTINGENT LIABILITYItems that may become a liability as a result or conditions undetermined at a given date such as guarantee, pending lawsuits, judgment under appeal, unsettled disputed claims, unfilled purchase orders, and incomplete contracts.
CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONAn appropriation that, once established, is automatically renewed without further legislative action, period after period, until altered or revoked.
CONTOUR INTERVALThe vertical distance between adjacent contour lines on a topographical map.
CONTOUR LINEA line on a topographical map or drawing connecting points on a land surface that have the same elevation.
CONTRACTAn agreement between two or more parties to do or not to do a particular thing.
CONTRACTORThe bidder awarded the contract for the work.
CONTROL ACCOUNTAn account in a general ledger in which the aggregate of debit and credit postings for a number of identical or related accounts called subsidiary accounts is recorded.
CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERA fertilizer composed of elements that have been treated to release all or part of the nutrients over a controlled or long period of time. The process may be chemical or physical in nature and varies in length of time.
CORMA vertical, thickened, solid underground stem, such as is borne by a crocus or gladiolus.
CORRECTIVE CONTROLThe application of chemical or mechanical controls designed to eliminate observed problems.
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCEPlanned maintenance, usually moderate to major in nature, to repair or replace building components or systems that have failed or been damaged. Corrective maintenance is often undertaken after a problem is identified by repeated calls for reactive maintenance.
CORROSIONThe deterioration of metal or concrete by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering, moisture, chemicals, or other agents in its environment.
COST ACCOUNTINGThat method of accounting which provides for the assembling and recording of all the elements of cost incurred to accomplish a goal, to carry on an activity or operation, or to complete a unit of work for a specific job.
COST LEDGERA subsidiary record in which each project, job, production center, process, operation, product, or service is given a separate account to which all items entered into its cost are posted in the required detail. These accounts should be arranged and kept so that the result shown in them may be reconciled and verified by a control account or an account from the general book.
COUPON RATEThe interest rate specified on the interest coupon attached to a bond. The term is synonymous with nominal interest rate.
CPIConsumer Price Index.
CPMCritical path method.
CRCapital renewal.
CREDITSRelates to the basic accounting equation of "assets equal liabilities and owners' equity (or fund balance)." Credits, on one hand, increase liabilities and owners' equity (or fund balance) and, on the other hand, decrease assets and expenses. The "credit" is the recording entry to the right column in the double-entry accounting records.
CREOSOTE(1) An oily liquid obtained by distilling coal that is toxic to fungi, insects, plants, and people; used to impregnate wood (as a preservative), to waterproof materials, and to retard weathering and checking of wood. (2) A plant native to the southwest United States that is occasionally used for landscaping.
CROTCHAn arborist’s term for the junction formed by two limbs or where a limb originates from the trunk of a tree.
CROTCHED INSafety climbing rope or work rope passed through an open crotch (so the rope will move freely without burning) high in the tree. From a well-chosen crotch, a climber can swing from one part of the tree to another in relative safety.
CROWNThe upper portion of a tree from the lowest branch on the trunk to the top.
CROWN CLEANINGThe removal of dead, diseased, crowded, weakly attached, and weak branches.
CROWN LIFTINGThe removal of the lower branches of a tree to provide clearance for vehicles, pedestrians, or buildings or site clearance (signs, vistas). Sometimes referred to as crown raising or elevating.
CRVSee Current Replacement Value.
CSHEMACampus Safety Health and Environmental Management Association.
CSIConstruction Specifications Institute, an association that creates standards and formats intended to help owners and designers improve construction documents.
CULTIVARA variety of plant denoting an assemblage of cultivated individuals that are distinguished by a significant characteristic and that when reproduced (sexually or asexually), retains its distinguishing feature. Derived from “cultivated variety.”
CULTURAL CONTROLControl measures that modify the methods by which crops are grown and aid in preventing pest damage rather than focusing on elimination of the pest.
CURRENT ASSETSAssets that are available or can be made readily available to meet the cost of operations or to pay current liabilities.
CURRENT FUNDSResources to be expended in the near term and used for operating purposes.
CURRENT LIABILITIESLiabilities that are payable within a relatively short period of time, usually no longer than a year.
CURRENT REPLACEMENT VALUE (CRV)The total expenditure in current dollars required to replace any facility at the institution, inclusive of construction costs, design costs, project management costs, and project administrative costs. Construction costs are calculated as replacement in function vs. in-kind. The value of design (6%), project management (10% to 12%), and administrative costs (4%) can be estimated at 20 percent of the construction cost. The value of property/land, however, is excluded, and insurance replacement values or book values should not be used to define the current replacement value. Costs for the replacement value are typically generated using a cost model based upon the use of reference cost databases using the building construction type, user and use categories, quality level, building systems and/or subsystems/components/units, and local experience. The property owner/manager may decide, for internal purposes, to base the CRV on “replacement in kind” (e.g., duplicate constructions techniques), vs. “replacement in function” (e.g., six-story office space). The CRVs for associated infrastructure, such as utility systems, and generating plants, roadways, and nonbuilding structures (e.g., dams, bridges) are developed in a similar manner. Insurance replacement values or book values should not be used to define current replacement value.
CUSTOMERIndividuals whose missions, roles, functions, and needs, respectively, are served by the staff and resources of the facilities organization.
CUT AND FILLThe process of excavating and moving the excavated material to another location to use as fill to adjust the surface grade.
CUTTINGA severed part of a plant for rooting to form a new plant. See Clone.
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DAQDivision of Air Quality, typically a state-level agency created to meet air standards that meet or exceed EPA-mandated standards.
DATUMA point used as a basis for calculating or measuring.
DDCDirect digital control.
DEADWOODINGThe removal of dead, weak, or dying branches from a tree. Often considered a hazard reduction.
DEBITSThe term "debit" relates to the basic accounting equation of "assets equal liabilities and owners' equity (or fund balance)." Debits, on one hand, increase assets or expenses and, on the other hand, decrease revenues and owners' equity (or fund balance). The "debit" is the recording entry to the left column in the double-entry accounting records.
DEBTAn obligation that results from the borrowing of money or from the purchase of goods and services.
DEBT FINANCINGAcquisition of an asset by borrowing money, thereby creating a liability. Typical forms of debt financing are loans and mortgages.
DEBT SERVICEAll payments in connection with funds borrowed by an institution: principal payments, interest charges, payments to sinking funds to ensure future principal and interest payments, payments to reserves to ensure proper upkeep and maintenance of the facilities, trustees' service charges, legal expenses, and other items related to indebtedness.
DECIDUOUSPlants that lose all their leaves at the end of the growing season.
DEFERRED (OR UNEARNED) REVENUEThat portion of receipts for which services have not been completely performed such as food service payments. Until such services are performed in their entirety, that portion of the receipts is considered a liability.
DEFERRED CHARGESExpenditures that are not chargeable to a fiscal period in which they are needed but are carried on the asset side of the balance sheet pending amortization or other disposition.
DEFERRED MAINTENANCE/DEFERRED MAINTENANCE BACKLOG/ACCUMULATED DEFERRED MAINTENANCE BACKLOG/DEFERRED CAPITAL RENEWALThe total dollar amount of existing maintenance repairs and required replacements (capital renewal) that were not accomplished when they should have been, not funded in the current fiscal year, or otherwise deferred. Typically identified by a comprehensive facilities condition assessment or audit of buildings, grounds, fixed equipment, and infrastructure. These eeds have not been scheduled to be accomplished in the current budget cycle and thereby are postponed until future funding budget cycles. The projects have received a lower priority status than those to be completed in the current budget cycle. For calculation of facility condition index values, deferred maintenance does not include grandfathered items e.g., Americans With Disabilities Act), or programmatic requirements (e.g., adaptation).
DEFICIENCY/REQUIREMENT (FACILITY/STRUCTURE/ASSET)The quantitative difference, typically in terms of dollar amount and associated physical requirements, between an asset’s current physical or functional condition and an established minimum level of condition/performance. Any problem or defect with materials or equipment.
DEFICITThe excess of the liabilities and reserves of a fund over its assets. It is also the excess of expenditures over revenues during an accounting period.
DEFOLIANTA material that causes the leaves to fall from plants; for example, a spray used to remove leaves from cotton plants just before harvest.
DEPDepartment of Environmental Protection. Typically, a state environmental agency. May also be Department of Environmental Management, Department of Environmental Conservation, or similar name.
DEPRECIATIONExpiration in the service life of fixed assets other than that attributable to wear and tear, deterioration from physical elements, inadequacy, obsolescence, or waste of assets.
Designated fundsUnrestricted monies expendable only for purposes designated by the governing board.
DETAIL DRAWINGA drawing, at a larger scale, of a part of another drawing, indicating in the detail the design, location, composition, and correlation of the elements and materials shown.
DETHATCHINGThe reduction of an excessive amount of thatch accumulation, usually with mechanized equipment, such as a vertical slicer.
DEVELOPED AREAAn area of land on which site improvements, such as grading and utility installation, have been made and buildings are erected.
DIAMETER BREAST HEIGHT (DBH)The diameter of a tree trunk measured at breast height, or 4 feet, 6 inches (54 inches) from the ground. The measurement is taken this high to avoid the flaring effect of the buttress roots on the methods used for estimating the amount of lumber in a tree. The diameter can be measured with calipers or a diameter tape.
DIRECT EXPENSESExpenses that can be charged directly as a part of a cost of a product for service, of a department, or of an operating unit. They are to be distinguished from overhead and other indirect costs that must be prorated among several products or services, departments, or operating units.
DIRECT LABORThe cost of labor directly expended in the production of specific goods for rendition of specific services.
DIRECT MATERIALSThe cost of materials that become an integral part of a specific manufactured product or that are consumed in the performance of a specific service.
DISBURSEMENTSPayment in cash.
DITCH CHECKA small damlike structure built transversely to the ditch centerline for the purpose of reducing discharge velocities and associated soil erosion.
DMDeferred Maintenance.
DORMANCYA seasonal recession of plant growth, normally caused by shortness of days (during winter), cold, or drought. Unless accompanied by extreme or adverse conditions, this annual “hibernation” is essential to the best growth of many perennial plants.
DORMANTNot in an actively growing condition but capable of becoming so under proper conditions.
DORMANT OILA spray applied when plants are in a dormant condition.
DOTU.S. Department of Transportation.
DOUBLE-CROTCHINGWhen a climber has tied into one crotch then uses the tail (opposite end) of the climbing rope to tie in around another crotch on the other side of the tree. This technique enables the climber to move across the top of the tree (as one must in installing cables) without a lot shinnying. Double-crotching is also used to provide a more stable work position for extensive tree work.
DOUBLE-ENTRY SYSTEMA system of bookkeeping that requires, for every entry made to the debit side of an account or accounts, an entry for a corresponding amount or amounts to the credit side of another account or accounts.
DRAINAGE AREAA horizontal area in a watershed, contributing to a specific point on the channel.
DRESSED SIZEThe dimensions of a piece of lumber or a timber after sawing and planking; usually about 3/8 inch (.95 cm) in thickness or 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) in width less than the indicated size.
DROP-CROTCHINGTechnique of trimming used when the top of a tree must be reduced for any reason. Instead of clipping the tops off at a certain level, the cuts are made to a lower crotch so that the vigor of the tree continues to flow into the limb that assumes the role of the removed branch. The wound left from drop-crotch pruning heals much faster with less chance of invasion by wood-rot fungi than the stubs that are all too often left with the “butchering” type of pruning. This method also avoids the common witch’s broom effect. Although more radical than thinning, drop-crotching is considered superior to heading back or topping.
DSCDirect space condition.
DUE CAREThe degree of care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise under the same or similar circumstances.
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E-WasteElectronic waste. While not regulated in every state, this category of waste is growing as an area greatly in need of managed recycling efforts. Every effort must be made to ensure that heavy metals and contaminated glass is not sent overseas for reclamation.
EAPEmergency Action Plan under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations.
EASEMENT, ConservationAn easement acquired by the public and designed to protect privately owned lands for recreation purposes or to restrict the use of private lands to preserve open space and protect certain natural resources.
EASEMENT, ScenicThe grant or sale by a landowner to an agency of the right to use his or her land for scenic preservation or enhancement. The easement bars the owner from changing the use or appearance of the land without the agency’s consent.
ECOLOGYThe branch of biology that deals with the mutual relations among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
ECOSYSTEMThe living and nonliving components of the environment that interact or function together, including plants and animal organisms, the physical environment, and the energy systems in which they exist. All the components of an ecosystem are interrelated.
EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATEThe rate of earning on a bond investment based on the actual price paid for the bond, the coupon rate, the maturity date, and the length of time between interest dates. This is in contrast to the nominal interest rate.
EFFLORESCENCEAn encrustation of soluble salts, commonly white, deposited on the surface of stone, brick, plaster, or mortar; usually caused by free alkalis leached from mortar or adjacent concrete as moisture moves through it.
EFFLUENTThe water solution discharge from a sewage treatment plant. This term may also refer to any liquid being discharged from a holding area.
EFP (Educational Facilities Professional)Facilities management certification program developed and offered by APPA.
ELEVATION(1) The altitude of a given point in relation to a given datum. (2) Drawing of a building or other development from a horizontal view without perspective.
EMERGENCY MAINTENANCEUnscheduled corrective activities that require immediate attention to restore a critical piece of equipment whose failure could threaten the safety of personnel or cause damage to other equipment or building systems.
EMERGENCY REPAIRSUnscheduled and unanticipated requests for system or equipment repairs. Service calls generally are received when a system or component has failed or is perceived to be working improperly. If the problem has created a hazard or involves an essential service, an emergency response may be necessary. Conversely, if the problem is not critical, a routine response is adequate.
EMINENT DOMAINThe power or right of a federal, state, or local government unit to take private property for public use with just compensation to the owner.
EMULSIFYING AGENTA material that helps to suspend globules of one liquid in another (e.g., oil in water).
EMULSIONA material in which one liquid is suspended in minute globules in another liquid (e.g., milk or an oil preparation in water).
ENCUMBRANCESObligations in the form of purchase orders, contracts, or salary commitments that are chargeable to an appropriation and for which a part of the appropriation is reserved. They cease to be encumbrances when paid or when the actual liability is recorded.
ENDOWMENT FUNDSFunds for which a donor or other outside agency has stipulated, as a condition of the gift, that the principal is to be maintained inviolate and in perpetuity and that only the income from the investments of the fund may be expended.
ENDOWMENT INCOMEYield, usually in the form of interest and dividends, that occurs as a result of investing the principal of an endowment fund. Capital gains and losses are not a part of endowment income.
ENERGY USAGEThe amount of energy it takes for heating, cooling, lighting, and equipment operation per gross square foot. This universal energy consumption metric is commonly considered a worldwide standard, and is expressed as a ratio of British Thermal Units (BTUs) for each gross square foot (gsf) of facility, group of facilities, site, or portfolio. This energy usage metric can be tracked over a given period to measure changes and variances of energy usage. Major factors that affect BTU per gsf are outside ambient temperature, building load changes, and equipment efficiencies. The indicator is traditionally represented as total energy consumed annually or monthly. All fuels and electricity are converted to their respective heat, or BTU content, for the purpose of totaling all energy consumed.
ENTRYThe record of a financial transaction in its appropriate book of accounts. An entry is also defined as an act of recording a transaction in the books of account.
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMA set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency, while also addressing pollution prevention within its processes or operations.
EOCEmergency Operations Center, the nerve center of an emergency response situation following a disaster.
EOPEmergency Operations Plan, lays out the framework the mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery intentions and actions of an institution, in consideration of a disaster .
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
EPCRAEmergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know Act under the Environmental Protection Agency.
EPIDEMICThe widespread and severe outbreak of a disease.
EQUIPMENT OPERATORA position that provides expertise in the operation of a variety of pieces of equipment generally related to landscape maintenance operations. This position usually requires a moderate education and experience in the maintenance and operation of equipment. The size of the equipment determines the rating of the operator, such as heavy equipment operator.
ERPEmergency Response Plan. In most cases, this must not only contain the elements of a crisis management plan, it must have the elements of business recovery, National Incident Management System (NIMS) communication compliance, and contact information both internal to the institution and external in the community.
ESCOEnergy Service Company or Contractor.
ESLEnglish as a Second Language, referring to current or potential employees for whom English is not the primary tongue.
ETHICSUsages and customs regarding the moral and professional duties of a professional toward others.
EVERGREENA plant that retains green foliage throughout the year.
EXFOLIATETo peel off in scales, layers, or thin plates, as bark from a tree trunk.
EXOTICA plant or other organism that has been introduced from other regions. The opposite of indigenous.
EXPANSION JOINT(1) A joint or gap between adjacent parts of a building, structure, or concrete work that permits their relative movement caused by temperature changes (or other conditions) without rupture or damage. (2) An expansion bend.
EXPENDABLE FUNDA fund whose resources, including both principal and earnings, may be expended.
EXPENDITURESWhere accounts are kept on the accrual or modified accrual basis, this term designates the cost of goods or services received, whether or not payment has been made. Expenditures also include provision for debt retirement not reported as a liability of the fund from which retired as well as capital outlay. Where accounts are kept on the cash basis, the term designates only actual cash disbursements for these purposes.
EXPENSESCharges incurred whether paid or unpaid for operations, maintenance, interest, and other charges that are presumed to benefit the current fiscal period.
EXPOSED AGGREGATE FINISHA decorative finish for concrete work; achieved by removing the outer skin of mortar, generally before the concrete has fully hardened, and exposing the coarse aggregate.
EXTERIOR WALLSThe width of the walls as measured at the intersection of the plane of the finished floor and the finished interior surface of the walls.
80/20 RULEA rule of thumb that says that 80 percent of the maintenance needs will regularly come from 20 percent of the components of the systems, and 20 percent of the maintenance time will be spent on the remaining 80 percent of the components.
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FACE VALUEAs applied to securities, the amount of liability stated in the security document.
FACILITIES NEEDS INDEXAn inventory of occupant and owner needs for a facility that looks beyond deferred maintenance or code requirements.
FACILITY ASSIGNABLE AREAThe area calculated by measuring the portions of the floor used to house personnel, furniture, support areas, and common support areas. Each assignable area is measured to the outside of the enclosing wall or furniture panel. Where a wall or furniture panel is common to more than one assignable area, measurements are taken to the center of the wall or furniture panel. This measurement is useful for detailed programming, planning, allocating, and laying out of space.
FACILITY CONDITION ASSESSMENT (FCA) OR AUDITThe structured development of a profile of existing facilities conditions, typically in an electronic database format, and populated with detailed facility condition inspection information. A detailed FCA typically involves an assessment team and depends upon robust, scalable methodologies to ensure accurate and consistent information. The FCA identifies deficient conditions (requirements) in logical grouping and priorities, along with associated recommended corrections and corrective costs. Costs are generally based on industry standard cost databases (e.g., Building News, Whitestone Research, Craftsman Book Company, Richardson General Construction Estimating Standards, RSMeans).
FACILITY CONDITION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (FACILITY CAPITAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM)A continuous systematic approach to identifying, assessing, prioritizing, and maintaining the specific maintenance, repair, renewal, and replacement requirements for all facility assets to provide valid documentation, reporting mechanisms, and budgetary information in a detailed database of facility issues.
FACILITY CONDITION INDEX (FCI)A comparative industry indicator/benchmark used to indicate the relative physical condition of a facility, group of buildings, or entire portfolio “independent” of building type, construction type, location, or cost. The FCI is expressed as a ratio of the cost of remedying deficiencies/requirements and capital renewal requirements to the current replacement value. The FCI provides a corresponding rule of thumb for the annual reinvestment rate (funding percentage) to prevent further accumulation of deferred maintenance deficiencies. The FCI value is a snapshot in time, calculated on an annual basis.
FACILITY INTERIOR GROSS AREAThe building exterior minus the thickness of the exterior walls.
FACILITY OPERATING CURRENT REPLACEMENT VALUE INDEXThe level of funding provided for the stewardship responsibility of an organization’s capital assets, expressed as a ratio of annual facility maintenance operating expenditure to current replacement value. Annual facility maintenance operating expenditures include all expenditures to provide service and routine maintenance related to facilities and grounds, as well as major maintenance funded by the annual facilities maintenance operating budget. This category does not include expenditures for major maintenance and/or capital renewal funded by other accounts, nor does it include expenditures for utilities and support services such as mail, telecommunications, public safety, security, motor pool, parking, environmental health and safety, or central receiving. Annual Facility Maintenance Operating Expenditures ($) Current Replacement Value ($)
FACILITY RENTABLE AREAThe area calculated by subtracting major vertical penetrations, interior parking space, and void areas from facility interior gross area.
FACILITY USABLE AREAThe area calculated by subtracting the primary circulation and the building core and service areas from the facility rentable area. This area can be assigned to occupant groups. This measurement is useful for programming, planning, and allocating space.
FALSE CROTCHA pulley, block, sling, lashing, or metal ring affixed to a tree’s leader or limb to provide an anchorage for rigging or climbing.
FEMAU.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
FERTILIZATIONThe application of required nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, by a variety of means, including but not limited to the following:
  1. Liquid injection: fertilizer introduced into the soil by means of a probe
  2. Granular broadcast: fertilizer applied typically by means of a mechanical spreader
  3. Trunk injection: fertilizer injected directly into the trunk of a tree
FERTILIZETo add a natural or manufactured material to the soil to supply one or more nutrients.
FERTILIZERA natural or manufactured material added to the soil to supply one or more nutrients. In the trade, the term is generally applied to largely inorganic material other than lime or gypsum soil. See also Balance Fertilizer, Complete Fertilizer, and Controlled-Release Fertilizer.
FFCFederal Facilities Council.
FIDELITY BONDA written promise to indemnify against losses from theft, defalcation, and misappropriation of funds.
FIFRAFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
FILLThe placement of sand, sediment, or other material, usually in submerged lands or wetlands, to create new uplands or raise the elevation of land.
FINE AGGREGATEThat portion of an aggregate that passes through a 4.76-mm (no. 4) sieve and is predominantly retained on a 74-m (no. 200) sieve.
FINISH GRADEThe top surface of lawns, walks, and drives or other improved surface after completion of construction or grading operations.
FINISHED SURFACEA wall, ceiling, or floor surface (including glass) as prepared for tenant or occupant use. Excludes the thickness of special surfacing materials such as paneling, furring strips, and carpet.
FISCAL YEARA 12-month period to which the annual budget applies. At the end of this period, an organization determines its financial position and the results of its operations.
FIXED ASSETSAssets of a long-term character that are intended to continue to be held or used such as land, buildings, machinery, furniture, and other equipment.
FIXED CHARGESExpenses, the amount of which is more or less fixed. Examples are such items as interest, insurance, and contributions to pension funds.
FIXED RETAINING WALLA retaining wall that is rigidly supported or laterally braced at its top and bottom, enabling it to withstand higher pressures than a freestanding wall.
FLOATING DEBTLiabilities other than bonded debt and time warrants that are payable on demand or at an early date.
FLOOD FREQUENCYA period of time within which the probability exists that a discharge equal to or greater than the discharge under consideration will occur.
FLOODPLAINThe area adjoining a stream, tidal estuary, or coast that is subject to intermittent flooding.
FLOODWAYThe normal stream channel and the adjoining area of the natural floodplain needed to convey the waters of a regional flood.
FLOWER BEDSA collection of showy annual or herbaceous plants that form a bed or planter; typically defined by a border.
FOOTINGThat portion of the foundation of a structure that transmits loads directly to the soil; it may be the widened part of a wall or column, the spreading courses under a foundation wall, the foundation of a column, or a similar part of the structure. The footing is used to spread the load over a greater area to prevent or reduce settling.
FOOTLOCKA method of ascent using a doubled-suspended rope. The rope is passed under one foot and clamped on by the other foot. The use of a Prusik loop or an ascending device is required to ensure safety during the ascent.
FORMAL SHRUB PLANTINGPruning that develops a rigid, unnatural shape by the nonselective shearing or pruning of all the branches or leaves to a predetermined point. Often used in topiary to create a variety of shapes.
FOUNDATION(1) Any part of a structure that serves to transmit the load to the earth or rock, usually below ground level. (2) The entire masonry substructure. (3) The soil or rock on which the structure rests.
FOUNDATION PLANTINGPlants massed close to the foundation of a structure.
FPIFacilities Performance Indicators. Annual data collection and report produced by APPA.
FRIABLESoil or other material that is easily crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder.
FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT (FTE)Used in facilities and human resource accounting to provide a standard measure of numbers of employees, faculty, or students.
FUMIGANTA substance or mixture of substances that produces gas, vapor, fume, or smoke intended to destroy insects, bacteria, or rodents. Typically, fumigants are intended for use in enclosed or confined areas so that the fumigant may be retained for the intended purpose.
FUNCTIONAL BENCHMARKINGA process that analyzes dissimilar industries to recognize best practices regardless of product or service.
FUNDAn independent fiscal and accounting entity with a self-balancing set of accounts recording cash and/or other resources together with all related liabilities, obligations, reserves, and equities that are segregated for the purpose of carrying on specific activities or attaining certain objectives in accordance with specific regulations, restrictions, or limitations.
FUND ACCOUNTINGA sum of money and other assets that constitute a separate accounting entity, created and maintained for a particular purpose and having transactions subject to legal or administrative limitations. Its double-entry accounts are self-balancing, and from there a balance sheet and operating statement may be prepared.
FUND BALANCEThe excess of the assets of a fund over its liabilities and reserves. An exception is in a case of a fund subject to budgetary accounting prior to the end of a fiscal period. In this instance a fund balance is the excess of the fund's assets and estimated revenues for the period over its liabilities, reserves, and appropriations for the period.
FURNITURE MOVEReconfiguration of existing furniture and/or furniture moved or purchased. Requires minimal telecommunication reconfiguration.
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GAFFSPieces of sharp metal fastened to spurs or climbing irons. They are designed to penetrate easily, not to “cut out” to the side, and to come out easily when the climber takes another step. Considered for use on valuable trees only in the event of a climber emergency or a tree removal.
GARDENER(1) A position that provides expertise in the maintenance of landscape operations and often functions in a lead or supervisory role over other groundspersons or groundsworkers. Generally, this position requires a moderate to considerable education in horticulture with a specified level of experience and/or certification. (2) A generic term for one who performs landscape maintenance tasks, such as mowing, trimming, or fertilizing.
GASBThe Government Accounting Standards Board, which defines the methodology to be used by universities and colleges in their official accounting processes.
GENERAL CONDITIONSThat portion of a contract for construction that remains essentially the same for every project.
GENERAL CONTRACTThe principal or prime contract in a construction project. The agreement between the owner and the general contractor.
GENERAL FUNDA fund used to account for all transactions of an organizational unit that are not accounted for in another fund.
GENERAL LEDGERA book, file, or other device that contains the account needed to reflect, in summary and in detail, financial position and result of financial operations.
GENERIC BENCHMARKINGA process that compares unrelated work practices.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)A system of hardware, software, and procedures designed to support the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, and display of spatially referenced data to solve complex planning and management problems.
GIN POLEA tall section of a tree to be removed that has one or more strong open crotches. It should be as close to the center of the tree as possible to aid in roping down sections of the tree. With large sections, a bull-rope is used with a snatch block. A dependable gin pole may be impossible to find in a dead or dying tree. Hydraulic crane units are now used in much the same way and are much safer for dealing with dead, dying, or storm-damaged trees.
GINKThe number-two worker on a tree crew. This worker is one of the most experienced crew members and usually takes the place of the foreperson if he or she must leave the job for a while.
GIRDLEA circle made by removing or constricting the bark around the main trunk of a tree. Because it severs the xylem and phloem, which conduct the fluid, nutrients, and sugars of the tree, a girdled tree usually dies.
GIRDLING ROOTA root that has changed normal direction and grown around the trunk or larger roots of a tree. The pressure exerted can become great, and the “tourniquet effect” cuts off the flow of fluids and nutrients down through the inner bark (phloem) and up through the sapwood (xylem). Often, this condition happens naturally, but care is needed in planting a bare root tree to avoid bending roots when turning a tree into position. When planting a container-grown tree, some roots will usually be found growing around the edge of the can. These should be cut or straightened to prevent eventual girdling.
GISSee Geographic Information System.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)A system originally funded, controlled, and designed for the U.S. military now in common use. GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute its location in the grid coordinate system.
GRADIENT(1) The degree of inclination of a surface, road, or pipe, often expressed as a percentage. (2) A rate of change in a variable quantity, such as temperature or pressure. (3) A curve representing such a rate of change.
GRAFFITIDrawings or writing that is placed on walls or other smooth surfaces. Typically applied with spray paint and found in public places.
GRAFTAsexual method of plant propagation in which a growing part of one plant (called the “scion”) is affixed on the growing stock of another. For success, the two cambium layers must join. The plant produced is a clone, faithful to the characteristics of the scion.
GRANTA contribution by one unit to another unit. The contribution is usually made to aid in the support of a specified function, but is sometimes also for general purposes.
GRANULAR BROADCASTFertilizer typically applied by means of a mechanical spreader.
GREEN CAMPUS OPERATIONSGrassroot efforts that promote education and activities on campus that focus on a sustained world environment.
GREEN DESIGNA type of design that embraces sustainable practices and is considered friendly to the environment.
GREEN INDUSTRYA general term used for the profession of growing and maintaining plant life and related businesses that support this industry. This term may embrace all forms of landscape and tree maintenance, as well as the greenhouse and florist trades.
GREENSKEEPERA position that provides expertise in the maintenance of golf courses, including tees, greens, fairways, and roughs. This position generally requires moderate education in agronomy and turf grass with a specified level of experience and/or certification.
GREYWATERA by-product of common campus activities such as bathing, dishwashing, and laundry. It is termed grey because the wastewater is not derived from toilets and does not contain any human waste. Greywater may be recycled for the purpose of refilling toilet tanks, landscape irrigation, or to supply wetlands.
GRIDIn surveying, two superimposed sets of equidistant parallel lines intersecting at right angles.
GROSS SQUARE FEET (gsf)The floor areas on all levels of a building that are totally enclosed within the building, representing the cumulative total of an organization’s building(s) inclusive of all floors to the outside faces of exterior walls. This measurement indicates total constructed space and is useful for building efficiency and construction cost comparisons. Found by measuring exterior building gross area to the outside face of exterior walls, disregarding canopies, cornices, pilasters, balconies, and buttresses that extend beyond the wall face and courtyards that are enclosed by walls but have no roof. The building exterior gross area of basement space includes the area measured to the outside face of basement or foundation walls, as well as exterior bridges and tunnels that are totally enclosed and constructed areas connecting two or more buildings.
GROUND COVERA broad term used to describe low-growing vegetation, typically a vine or succulent plant that is used to cover a large area. Often used as an alternative to turf grass, particularly under the canopy of large trees.
GROUNDSKEEPER, GROUNDSPERSON, GROUNDSWORKERConsidered the entry-level position in landscape maintenance operations. A generic term for one who performs landscape maintenance tasks, such as mowing, trimming, or fertilizing.
GROUT(1) Thin mortar used for filling in the joints of masonry, brickwork, or brick or stone pavements. (2) Thin mortar pumped into the ground to rectify expansive clay problems or to seal off subsurface drainage.
GRUNTSlang for a groundsworker who picks up brush and services the climber with tools and equipment.
GUARANTEEA pledge that ensures a standard of performance.
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HANGERA storm-broken limb or one cut by a trimmer or topper that does not fall to the ground but remains hanging in the tree as a possible hazard to people, vehicles, houses, or utility wires. Such storm- broken limbs should receive priority over broken limbs on the ground. One of the last things a tree trimmer should do is to make a final check to be sure that all hangers from the trimming or line clearing have been removed from the tree.
HARDINESSThe capability of a plant to survive in a given environment.
HARDPANA hardened, relatively impervious layer of soil.
HARDSCAPEA landscape term for areas that are composed of brick, concrete, or other hard surfaces,such as walks, roads, parking lots, water features, etc. May be absent of softscape features.
HAZARDOUS WASTELiquid, solid, contained gas, or sludge wastes that contain properties that are dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment.
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANIFESTA shipping document required for the management and shipment of hazardous waste from the generator site (institution) to the final destination (transfer, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF)). Must be signed by an individual who has been trained in DOT shipping and receiving standards.
HAZMATAny solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, or the environment .
HCPHearing Conservation Program under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
HEADING BACKCutting back limbs to a stub, bud, or lateral branch that is not large enough to assume the terminal role. Sometimes referred to as “topping.”
HEADS UPWarning call given by the tree trimmer or topper before he or she lets a piece of brush or limb wood fall to the ground.
HEDGESA collection of woody shrubs or low trees that are arranged in a dense row; often used to create a fence or boundary.
HERBA flowering plant with aboveground stems that are destitute of woody tissue and perish when the flowers and fruit (seed) mature.
HERBACEOUSA stem that is not woody like those of trees and shrubs.
HERBACEOUS PLANTA plant that remains soft or succulent and does not develop woody tissue.
HERBICIDEA pesticide used to kill herbaceous or other plants. Any compound used to kill or inhibit the growth of a plant.
HIGH WATERThe flood stage of a stream or lake that is the measurement of the actual height of the water surface above the stream banks during the maximum flow of the water. The historic high water mark is called stage recorded. The design high water is used for design purposes and is usually based on the empirical frequency of recurrence or history of flood cycles.
HIGH-INTENSITY RECREATIONRecreation that uses specially built facilities or occurs in such density or form that it requires or results in a modification of the area of resource. Campgrounds, golf courses, public beaches, campus quads, and marinas are examples of high-intensity recreation.
HORTICULTUREThe science and art of growing plants, such as fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Intensified agriculture.
HORTICULTURISTOne who practices the science and art of horticulture. One who maintains fruit or vegetable production or ornamental gardens and landscapes.
HUMUSDecomposed or partially decomposed organic matter in or on the soil; frequently of a dark color.
HVACHeating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
HWHazardous waste.
HYDRAULICPertaining to water in motion and the mechanics of motion.
HYDRAULIC PROCESSESActions resulting from the effect of moving water or water pressure on the bed, banks, and shore lands of water bodies (ocean, estuaries, streams, lakes, and rivers).
HYDROLOGICPertaining to the cyclic phenomena of waters of the earth, successively as precipitation, runoff, storage, and evaporation; quantitatively as to distribution and concentration.
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IBCInternational Building Code.
IEBCInternational Existing Building Code.
IFMAInternational Facility Management Association.
IMPERVIOUSA characteristic assigned to hard surfaces such as concrete that are unable to absorb water, as the native soils underneath may have been able to do previously .
IMPROVEMENTA change or addition to an asset that improves its performance or appearance and/or extends its useful life.
INCREMENT BORERTool that has a T-handle, a sharpened hollow bit, and a core remover. It is used to take out a small core of wood about 3/16 inch in diameter. From this core, the annual rings can be counted to determine rate of growth, or used to diagnose disease, such as wetwood, verticillum wilt (green or brown spots), and Dutch elm disease (brown spots); and to determine extent of wood rot.
INDIGENOUSNative or belonging to a region or an area. The opposite of exotic.
INDIRECT COSTSCosts that have been incurred for purposes common to some or all of the specific programs or activities of an institution but that cannot easily be identified and charged directly to them with a reasonable degree of accuracy and without an inordinate amount of accounting. Examples include such items as heating, lighting, air conditioning, and janitorial services of buildings plus administrative services such as accounting, purchasing, personnel, and library services.
INFECTIOUS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC WASTEMunicipal and residual waste that is generated in the diagnosis, treatment, immunization, or autopsy of human beings or animals, in research pertaining thereto, in the preparation of human or animal remains for interment or cremation, or in the production or testing of biologicals.
INFORMAL SHRUB PRUNINGPruning that allows the shrub to develop in a natural shape defined by the species of the plant. Such pruning may be accomplished by thinning or selectively removing branches in the interior of the plant.
INFRASTRUCTUREThe necessary components that allow an entity, such as a park or other facility, to function. These items may include potable water, irrigation water, power, sanitary and storm sewers, and roadways and walkways.
INORGANICSubstances occurring as minerals in nature or obtainable from those minerals by a chemical means. Generalized to refer to fertilizer that is not derived from plant or animal matter.
INSPECTIONAn examination or careful scrutiny to ensure compliance.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM)A system that uses all the appropriate methods and techniques to control pest populations at levels below those that cause economic injury. This system may include cultural practices, natural remedies, and selective pesticides.
INTEGRITYThe quality or state of being complete and functionally unimpaired; the wholeness or entirety of a body or system, including its parts, materials, and processes. The integrity of an ecosystem emphasizes the interrelatedness of all parts and the unity of its whole.
INTERIOR PARKING SPACESpace used for vehicular parking that is totally enclosed within the (occupied) building envelope.
INTERNAL AUDITINGA review of operations within established policy guidelines that provides managers with reports, conclusions, and recommendations of the results of the review. It is used to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the organization.
INTERNAL BENCHMARKINGA process that concentrates on benchmarking internal customers.
INTERNAL CONTROLA plan whereby employees' duties are arranged and records and procedures are designed in a way that permits effective accounting control over assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenditures. Under such a system the work of employees is subdivided so that no single employee performs a complete cycle of operations. Thus, for example, an employee handling cash would not post accounts receivable records. Under such a system the procedures to be followed are delineated and require proper authorization by designated officials in order for all actions to be taken.
INTERNODEThe region of a stem between two successive nodes.
INTERSTITIAL AREAThe area of load-bearing surfaces, located above or below occupied building floors, that is not available for general occupancy because of inadequate clear headroom but may contain building mechanical or electrical systems predominantly serving adjacent floors or provide access to such systems.
INVENTORIES OF MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT CHEMICALSTo determine if certain EPCRA Tier 2 reporting requirements must be met, a full inventory of all chemicals within the maintenance department must be conducted. This includes all daily use chemicals, spray cans, salt and sand, oil, gasoline, diesel, heating fuel, boiler chemicals, and other incidental chemicals. Anything over 10,000 lbs., and some high hazard chemicals at lower levels, must be reported to local authorities.
INVENTORIES OF OIL-CONTAINING DEVICESTo determine if an SPCC plan is needed on a campus, it is important to conduct an inventory of all oil-containing tanks, containers, and equipment that exceed 55 gallons in quantity. An aggregate quantity of 1,320 gallons above ground on any contiguous portion of the campus, which has potential access to navigable waterways through storm drains, the sanitary sewer, or surface water ways requires the development of an SPCC plan. In conducting your inventory, include all Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs), Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), Drums (55 gallons and larger), Transformers (55 gallons and larger), Hydraulic Elevators (55 gallons and larger), generators, and drums/dumpsters of kitchen grease.
INVENTORYA detailed list showing quantities, descriptions, and values of property and, frequently, units of measure and unit prices.
INVENTORY OF AIR EMISSIONS DEVICESIn order to determine whether a campus may be required to obtain an Operating Permit, calculations are needed to determine the actual and potential air contaminant emissions from the combustion units on campus. Combustion units include, but are not limited to: annealing furnaces, boilers, central heating plants, crematoriums, emergency generators, hot air heaters, hot water heaters, incinerators, kilns, foundries, experimental gasoline and diesel engines, paint spray booths, waste oil burners, and emergency power generators, whether they are in service or not and regardless of size.
INVESTMENTSSecurities and real estate held to produce income in the form of interest, dividends, rentals, or lease payments.
IPMIntegrated Pest Management.
IRRIGATIONThe artificial application of water to the land or soil to assist in the maintenance of landscapes, growing of crops, and to supplement water needs during periods of inadequate rainfall.
ITInformation Technology.
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JITJust in time, a delivery method for supplies, materials, and services.
JOCJob order contracting.
JOURNAL VOUCHERA voucher for recording certain transactions or information in place of or supplementary to the journals or registers. The journal voucher usually contains an entry or entries, explanations, references to documentary evidence supporting the entry or entries, and the signature or initials of one or more properly authorized individuals.
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KILOWATTS PER HOURIdentifying the amount of electrical energy delivered during one hour, in thousands of watts (equivalent to 3,413 Btu).
KNOWLEDGEABLE PERSONDefined by OSHA as “1) one knowledgeable in the equipment involved, along with the associated hazards of the topic and who has undergone formal training as well; 2) an employee who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training, and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person, is considered to be a qualified person for the performance of those duties.”
KPIsKey performance indicators.
kWhSee Killowatts per Hour.
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LABOR AND MATERIAL PAYMENT BONDA bond of the contractor in which a surety guarantees to the owner that the contractor will pay for labor and materials used in the performance of the contract. The claimants under the bond are defined as those who have direct contracts with the contractor or any subcontractor.
LABOR NEEDS ANALYSISDetermining appropriate staffing levels for the desired level of service.
LANDA fixed asset account that reflects the value of land owned by an organization. If land is purchased, this account shows the purchase price and costs such as legal fees and excavation costs incurred to ready the land for its intended use. If the land is acquired by gift, the account reflects the proposed value at the time of acquisition.
LANDSCAPEThe surroundings of a site, which may or may not include hardscape (walks and plazas) and softscape (lawns and plantings).
LARVICIDEA pesticide that is used to kill insect larvae.
LBPLead-based paint.
LDCLocal distribution companies, delivering various types of utilities to the campus, i.e., electricity, natural gas, etc.
LEACHING(1) The washing out of soluble nutrients from the soil. Occurs naturally in areas of high rainfall. May require replacement of nutritive elements (especially nitrogen) and correction of acidity, which comes from the leaching out of alkaline salts. Leaching is sometimes done intentionally to rid soil of a detrimental salt or overdose of inorganic nitrogen. (2) The subsurface disposal of septic tank effluent into the ground (i.e., leach field disposal).
LEASEHOLDThe right to the use of real estate by virtue of lease, usually for a specific term of years, for which a consideration is paid.
LEED®The acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, a green building certification system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance in energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.
LETTER OF INTENTA letter signifying an intention to enter a formal agreement, usually setting forth the general terms of such agreement.
LEVEL OF SERVICEIndicating the standard at which an organization functions.
LIABILITYAn obligation that one is bound in law or justice to perform; the condition of being actually or potentially subject to an obligation. Debt or other legal obligations arising out of past transactions that must be liquidated, renewed, or refunded at some future date.
LIENAn enforceable right against specific property to secure payment of an obligation.
LIFE INCOME AGREEMENTAn agreement by which a donor makes assets available to an institution under the condition that the institution will, for the donor's lifetime, pay the donor the income earned by the assets.
LIFE INCOME FUNDSFunds acquired by an institution subject to life income agreements.
LIFE-CYCLE COSTINGAn estimating procedure used to determine the cost of facility system or component renewal based on the average useful life of an individual component. Typically based on visual observations, via a facilities conditions assessment/audit, to determine the remaining useful life of a system and the development of cost models for the facility. This process enables multiyear modeling of future replacement costs and timing.
LINEAR MEASUREMENTA measure of length, such as feet or miles.
LION-TAILINGThe removal of all the inner lateral branches and foliage from a limb. This process hollows out the interior foliage, which may lead to a weakened branch.
LIQUID INJECTIONFertilizer introduction into the soil by means of a probe.
LIQUIDATED DAMAGESA sum specified in a contract whereby damages in the event of breach are predetermined. In construction contracts, liquidated damages usually are specified as a fixed sum per day for failure to complete the work within a specified time. If set at a level consistent with a reasonable forecast of actual harm to the owner, liquidated damage clauses will be upheld and will preclude use of standards for computation of damages that would otherwise be imposed by law. If the amount prescribed for liquidated damages is unreasonably high, the provision will be denominated an illegal “penalty” by the courts and held invalid; in such cases, damages will be determined pursuant to otherwise applicable rules of law.
LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTEBy definition, EPA determined that some specific wastes are hazardous. These wastes are incorporated into lists published by EPA and are organized into three categories:
  1. The F-list (non-specific source wastes). This list identifies wastes from common manufacturing and industrial processes, such as solvents that have been used in cleaning or degreasing operations. Because the processes producing these wastes can occur in different sectors of industry, the F-listed wastes are known as wastes from non-specific sources. Wastes included on the F-list can be found in the regulations at 40 CFR §261.31.
  2. The K-list (source-specific wastes). This list includes certain wastes from specific industries, such as petroleum refining or pesticide manufacturing.
  3. The P-list and the U-list (discarded commercial chemical products). These lists include specific commercial chemical products in an unused form. Some pesticides and some pharmaceutical products become hazardous waste when discarded. Wastes included on the P- and U-lists can be found in the regulations at 40 CFR §261.33.
LITIGATIONA lawsuit or judicial controversy.
LITTORAL DRIFTThe material moved, such as sand or gravel, in the littoral zone (shallow water near shore) under the influence of waves and currents.
LNALabor needs analysis, determining appropriate staffing levels for the desired level of service.
LOAMThe textural class name for soil that has a moderate amount of sand, silt, and clay. Loam soils contain 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 percent sand.
LOAN FUNDSFunds to be lent to students, faculty, or staff. When both principal and interest on the loans are lendable, they are included in the loan funds group. If only the income from a fund is lendable, the principal is included in the endowment and similar funds group. The cumulative income, however, constitutes the loan fund.
LOCK OUT-TAG OUTProgram under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), addresses the control and management of energized sources such as electricity, steam, hydraulics, and other sources that can cause injury.
LONG-TERM DEBTDebt with a maturity of more than one year after the date of issuance.
LOW-INTENSITY RECREATIONRecreation that does not require developed facilities and can be accommodated without change to the area of resource. Boating, hunting, hiking, wildlife photography, and beach or shore activities are examples of low-intensity recreation.
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M&RMaintenance and replacement, referring to facility activities that are intended to extend the projected life of assets.
MACADAM, TARMAC, TARMACADAM(1) A paving for roads or other surfaces, formed by grading and compacting layers of crushed stone or gravel. The top layer(s) are usually bound by asphaltic material, acting to stabilize the stone, provide a smoother surface, and seal against water penetration. (2) The crushed stone used in a macadamized surface.
MAINTAINSupport, keep, and continue in an original state or condition without decline.
MAINTENANCEWork required to preserve or restore buildings and equipment to their original condition or to such condition that they can be effectively used for their intended purpose, ensuring ongoing operation of the campus.
MAINTENANCE IMPACT STATEMENTAn assessment process used to document impacts on an agency’s maintenance operating budget and organization in terms of dollar costs of operating and maintaining a proposed facility or program. Provides a focus beyond the initial investment on the long-term financial and organizational impact of each option considered.
MAINTENANCE MEASUREMENTThe measurement of aspects of maintenance in order to provide the feedback necessary to adjust the overall maintenance plan.
MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCEA measure of the effectiveness of labor; calculated as a ratio of time allowed divided by time taken on a series of jobs completed during a given period. For example, if a job is determined to require 10 hours to complete, yet the workers take 20 hours, the performance is only 50 percent.
MAINTENANCE QUALITY/SERVICE LEVELSThe APPA levels are Showpiece Facility, Comprehensive Stewardship, Managed Care, Reactive Management, and Crisis Response.
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTSSpecific criteria established for guidance in carrying out maintenance tasks.
MAINTENANCE STANDARDSActivities or individual work elements that support maintenance requirements.
MAJOR MAINTENANCEUnplanned repairs and replacement, paid from the capital funds budget, that must be accomplished but that is not funded by normal maintenance resources received in the annual operating budget cycle.
MAJOR VERTICAL PENETRATIONSInclude stairs, elevator shafts, utility tunnels, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ducts, and their enclosing walls.
MANAGEMENT UNITAn area or group of areas that is managed under a single management plan.
MANDATORY TRANSFERSTransfers arising out of binding legal agreements related to the financing of the educational plant such as amounts for debt retirement, interest, and required provisions for plant renewals and replacements that are not financed from other sources. Also, transfers arising out of grant agreements with federal government agencies, donors, and other organizations to match gifts and grants to loan funds or other funds.
MARSCommercially available software developed by Whitestone Research. It forecasts both deferred maintenance and future requirements on the basis of asset components and their scheduled maintenance and repair.
MATRIXA rectangular array of mathematical elements that can be combined to form sums and products.
MCEMotor circuit evaluator.
MECHANICA position that provides expertise in the maintenance of a variety of pieces of equipment generally related to landscape maintenance operations. This position usually requires a moderate to extensive education and experience in the maintenance and repair of equipment.
MECHANIC’S LIENA claim that attaches to improvements on real property and to the land itself for the purpose of securing priority of payment for the value of work, labor, or services performed or materials furnished in making improvements to the property.
MEDIAEach of the regulatory acts enacted under the EPA: CAA, CWA, CERCLA, EPCRA, FIFRA, RCRA, TSCA, among others. EPA inspectors typically audit by media and in small teams at institutions.
MEDIATIONThe act of a third person who attempts to persuade two or more parties to a dispute to adjust or settle their problem.
MEDICAL WASTEAlso known as clinical waste, normally refers to waste products that cannot be considered general waste, produced from healthcare premises, such as hospitals, clinics, doctors’ offices, veterinary hospitals and labs.
MINIMUM TURNING RADIUSThe radius of the path of the outer front wheel of a vehicle making its sharpest turn. A dimension often used in the performance of grounds maintenance equipment, such as mowers, to denote ability to make tight turns in the process of mowing.
MONKEYFISTType of knot tied in the end of a throw line (1/4 or 3/8 inches) to make it easier to throw over a limb or through an open crotch. This knot has been virtually replaced by shot pouches and other throwing weights.
MOUNTABLE CURBA curb that can be climbed readily by a moving vehicle.
MSDSMaterial Safety Data Sheet.
MULCHA layer of organic or inorganic material put on the soil for one or more of the following reasons: to reduce the evaporative loss of water from the soil, reduce runoff, reduce compaction, help to control weeds, add organic matter to the soil, protect plants from mowers or equipment, moderate soil temperature fluctuations, or for ornamental purposes.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)More commonly known as trash or garbage—consists of everyday items we use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. This comes from our homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses.
MWMunicipal waste (trash).
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NACUBONational Association of College and University Business Officers.
NASFNet assignable square feet.
NEGLIGENCEThe failure to exercise that degree of care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise so as not to submit others to unreasonable risks of harm. Contributory negligence is the want of ordinary care on the part of the person injured that concurred with a defendant’s negligence and was a cause of the injured party’s damage. Comparative negligence is a doctrine of law wherein the concurrent negligence of a plaintiff and a defendant are compared and the plaintiff’s damages are diminished proportionally to his or her fault.
NEGOTIATIONThe official notice included in a proposal for inviting bids for a proposed improvement.
NEPANational Environmental Policy Act, establishes national environmental policies and goals for the protection, maintenance, and enhancement of the environment, and provides a process for implementing these goals within the federal agencies.
NESHAPNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.
NET INCOMEThe term used in accounting for designating the excess of total revenues over total expenditures for an accounting period.
NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV)The difference between the sum of discounted cash flows that are expected from an investment, and the amount that is currently invested. Considers the potential impact of inflation and the cost of money.
NET REVENUE AVAILABLE FOR DEBT SERVICEGross operating revenues of an enterprise less operating and maintenance expenses but exclusive of depreciation and bond interest.
NEW CAPITAL CONSTRUCTIONA project performed to create or add to a building. Includes construction and purchase of fixed equipment.
NFPANational Fire Protection Association.
NODEAn enlarged region of the stem that is generally solid, where leaves are attached and buds may be located. Stems have nodes, but roots do not.
NOMINAL INTEREST RATEThe contractual interest rate shown on the face and in the body of a bond that represents the amount of interest to be paid. This is in contrast to the effective interest rate.
NON-TRADE-SPECIFIC POSITION DESCRIPTIONA detailed description of the tasks required to support various aspects maintenance such as general, preventive, corrective, aesthetic, or others that encompass all trades or are common to many trades. This version of a position description is often much more detailed and is used as a complement to Trade-Specific Position Descriptions and include labor related skills and abilities that are common and necessary throughout maintenance.
NONOPERATING EXPENSESExpenses incurred for nonoperating properties, or expenses incurred in performing activities not directly related to supplying the basic service of an enterprise.
NONSELECTIVE HERBICIDEA chemical that is generally toxic to all plants without regard to species.
NONSYSTEMIC HERBICIDEA chemical or formulation that works without being ingested into the plants, generally without residual results.
NORMAL/ROUTINE MAINTENANCE AND MINOR REPAIRSCyclical, planned work activities funded through the annual budget cycle, done to continue or achieve either the originally anticipated life of a fixed asset (i.e., buildings and fixed equipment) or an established level of performance. Normal/routine maintenance is performed on capital assets such as buildings and fixed equipment to help them reach their originally anticipated life. Deficiency items are low in cost to correct and are normally accomplished as part of the annual operations and maintenance (O&M) funds. Normal/routine maintenance excludes activities that expand the capacity of an asset, or otherwise upgrade the asset to serve needs greater than or different from those originally intended.
NOTCHINGTechnique used in felling trees or in cutting off large limbs so that the log falls in a certain direction. Two saw cuts are made, the first horizontal cut from 1/3 to 1/2 of the diameter. The second cut is made from above at about a 45-degree angle to meet the first so that a wedge-shaped section is removed. When the wood on the opposite side is cut (back cut), the tree will begin to lean and the remaining wood will start to break. The tree or log will fall at about 90 degrees to the base of the notch. If the back cut is made at a slight angle so that more wood is left on the left or right side, the tree will swing in that direction before it breaks off.
NOTES PAYABLEGenerally, an unconditional written promise signed by the maker to pay a certain sum in money. The money is payable on demand or at a fixed or determinable time either to the bearer or to the order of a person designated on the note.
NOVATIONThe substitution of a new contract for an existing valid contract between the same or different parties.
NOXIOUS WEEDA weed or plant defined as being especially undesirable, troublesome, or difficult to control.
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O&MOperations and maintenance.
O.T.Overtime compensation.
OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONGrouping expenditures on the basis of goods or services purchased. For example, expenditures would be grouped under personal services, materials, supplies, equipment, and so on.
OBSOLESCENCEThe decrease in the value of fixed assets relating to economic, social, technological, or legal changes.
OILSReferences are usually to aromatic or paraffinic oils used in formulating such products as diluents or carriers for herbicides. Dormant oil is used to smother insects that overwinter on a plant.
OJTOn-the-job training.
OPEN PLAN OFFICEOffice space divided by movable partitions.
OPERATING BUDGETA budget that applies to all outlays except capital outlays.
OPERATING PERMITThe permit required to operate a new emissions source such as a boiler. This is typically obtained by the architect or engineer installing the device, but may not be aggregated with the other emissions sources operated by the institution.
OPERATING STATEMENTSA statement that summarizes the financial operations for an accounting period. This is to be contrasted with a balance sheet that shows financial position at a given time.
ORIGINAL COSTThe total of assets given and/or liabilities assumed to acquire an asset.
ORNAMENTALSPlants that are used to enhance landscapes and gardens.
OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration, a federal agency that defines and monitors the working environment.
OVERHAULThe transportation of excavated material beyond a specified limit.
OVERHEADElements of cost needed to produce an article or to perform a service that cannot be easily or accurately charged to the product or service. Overhead items usually relate to those objects of expenditure that do not become an integral part of the finished product or service. Examples are rent, heat, light office supplies, and insurance.
OVERSEEDA process by which grass seed is applied over top of an existing stand of turf, often for the purpose of increasing plant density or creating a temporarily green, viable sports surface during winter months. Common on golf tees and greens, as well as sports fields.
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PACMPotential Asbestos Containing Material.
PCBPoly Chlorinated Biphenyls, commonly found in old capacitors, insulating fluids in transformers, vacuum pump fluids and hydraulic fluids. PCBs have been outlawed since 1979. These are a widespread, persistent environmental pollutant and have significantly impacted a number of bird and fish species.
PdMPredictive maintenance.
PEAK SHAVINGKeeping enough in-house staff to handle around 80 percent of peak demand and purchasing external resources or staff (in this case, from the facilities organization) to make up the difference during peak times. Peak shaving may involve staffing a certain trade or department at a level that is less than required in the most demanding months of the year.
PEAVYTool for turning, rolling, and lifting logs, especially when floating in water. Has a heavy hook hinged about 8 inches above an iron-shod tip; similar to a cant hook except that it has a pike point on the end instead of a flat-toothed plate.
PERENNIAL FLOWERSPlants, typically herbaceous, that grow more or less indefinitely from year to year and usually bear seed each year.
PERENNIAL ROOTA root that lives over winter and initiates the stem growth from buds. Such a root must be large enough to store enough food to start the new growth in the spring.
PERENNIALSPlants that live more than two years and that can persist indefinitely in specific climatic ranges. A plant that is a perennial in one climate may be used as an annual in another climate.
PERFORMANCE BONDA bond of the contractor in which a surety guarantees to the owner that the work will be performed in accordance with the contract documents. Except where prohibited by statute, the performance bond is frequently combined with the labor and material payment bond.
PERGOLAOpen garden structure enclosing part of a path or walk. Vines or pleached trees are often trained overhead.
PERMEABILITY(1) The property of soil, rock, or mantle that permits water to flow through it. (2) The property of a porous material that permits the passage of water vapor through it.
PERPETUAL INVENTORYA system in which the inventory of units of property at any date may be obtained directly from the records without resorting to an actual physical count.
PESTAny organism that is injurious to humans, their property, or the environment.
PEST CONTROL SPECIALISTA position that provides expertise in the control of pests and diseases, including but not limited to plant disease, insects, vertebrate pests, weeds, and disorders that hinder the production of food crops or ornamental plants. This position generally requires considerable education in pest control and a specified level of experience and/or certification.
PESTICIDEAs defined by the U.S. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), an economic poison (pesticide) “means any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, weeds, or any other forms of life declared to be pests; and any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.”
PETTY CASHA sum of money set aside for the purpose of making change or paying small obligations. The money is used for cases in which issuing a formal voucher and check would be too expensive and time consuming.
pHThe measure of acidity or alkalinity, expressed as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. With a pH of 7 denoted as neutral, a value less than 7 indicates acidity; a value higher than 7 indicates alkalinity.
pH MAINTENANCEThe management of the pH of soil or a solution by the application of alkaline or acidic products.
PLAN, GraphicA two-dimensional graphic representation of the design, location, and dimensions of the project or parts thereof, seen as a horizontal plane viewed from above.
PLANNED OR PROGRAMMED MAINTENANCEMaintenance tasks whose cycle exceeds one year, such as painting, flood coating of roofs, overlays and seal coating of roads and parking lots, and digging of constricted utility lines.
PLANT FUNDSFunds to be used for the construction, rehabilitation, and acquisition of physical properties for institutional purposes; funds already expended for such properties; funds set aside for the renewal and replacement of properties; and funds accumulated for the retirement of indebtedness on these properties.
PLANTING EASEMENTAn easement for reshaping roadside areas and establishing, maintaining, and controlling plant growth thereon.
PLEACHTo train and interlace the tops of trees or other plants to form an archway over an alley or walkway.
PLOT CONDITIONA rank of relative condition, as in excellent to poor.
PLUG(1) Short piece of limb left when a large limb is removed by the three-cut method. See Stub. (2) That portion of the soil and turf removed during the core aerating process.
PMSee Preventive Maintenance.
POLICINGA general term for the hand removal of litter, debris, and rubbish from landscape and hardscape areas.
POST-EMERGENT HERBICIDEA herbicide that is applied after the appearance of a specified weed or plant.
POST-EMERGENT TREATMENTTreatment made after a plant emerges. Contact pre-emergent treatment is made after weed emergence but before crop emergence.
POTABLE WATERWater that is fit for human consumption and satisfies the standards of the appropriate health authorities.
POUNDS PER HOURA unit of measure for steam.
POWER OF ATTORNEYA legal instrument authorizing one to act as the attorney or agent for another party.
POWER PLANTA term used to describe electricity-generating facilities on the campus. Also used more generically to include boiler plants and other energy generators.
POWER TAKEOFF (PTO)A supplemental mechanism (as on a tractor) enabling the power of the engine to be used to operate nonautomotive apparatus, such as a pump or spreader.
PPEPersonal Protective Equipment, such as safety glasses, safety goggles, hearing protection, steel- toed boots, chemical resistant gloves, chemical resistant aprons, welding goggles and face shields, chainsaw chaps/pants, and other protective gear. PPE is used as the last resort of protection after administrative and engineering controls have been exhausted.
PRCSPermit Required Confined Space. Entry permits, procedures, atmospheric testing, and entry attendants are required by OSHA to work in these spaces. Each PRCS must be labeled and an inventory of these spaces on campus must be maintained. Campuses will have multiple PRCSs: underground electrical vaults, sewer manholes, underground IT vaults, some tunnel systems, boilers, steam tunnels, acid neutralization tanks, etc.
PRE-EMERGENT HERBICIDEA herbicide that is applied to control specific weeds before the emergence of the weed or a crop.
PRECAST CONCRETEA concrete member that is cast and cured in other than its final position.
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE/TESTING/INSPECTIONRoutine maintenance, testing, or inspection performed to anticipate failure using specific methods and equipment, such as vibration analysis, thermographs, X-ray, or acoustic systems, to aid in deter-mining future maintenance needs. Examples include tests to locate thinning piping, fractures, or excessive vibrations that are indicative of maintenance requirements.
PREPAID EXPENSESExpenses entered in the accounts for benefits not yet received. Prepaid expenses differ from deferred charges in that they are spread over a shorter period of time and are regularly recurring costs of operations. Examples of prepaid expenses are prepaid rent, prepaid interest, and premiums on unexpired insurance.
PREVENTIVE CONTROLA scheduled chemical or cultural program designed to prevent significant damage.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCEA planned, controlled program of periodic inspection, adjustment, cleaning, lubrication, and selective parts replacement of components, and minor repair, as well as performance testing and analysis intended to maximize the reliability, performance, and life cycle of building systems and equipment. Consists of many checkpoint activities on items that, if disabled, may interfere with an essential installation operation, endanger life or property, or involve high cost or long lead time for replacement.
PRIMARY CIRCULATIONThe portion of a building that is a public corridor or lobby; the space required for access by all occupants on a floor to stairs, elevators, restrooms, and building entrances or tenant space entry points on multitenant floors.
PRIORITYA rank of priority relative to visibility, such as in high to low visibility.
PRIVATE OFFICEEnclosed office with enclosed floor-to-ceiling walls.
PRO FORMAA term used in conjunction with a noun to denote a sample form, document, statement, certificate, or presentation. The contents may be either wholly or partially hypothetical or factual and may be estimates or proposals.
PRODUCTIVITY FACTORThe measure of the efficiency of all inputs to a production process. Increases in productivity usually result from technological innovations or improvement.
PROFESSIONAL STANDARD OF CAREThat degree of skill or care usual in a particular profession.
PROGRAMProposed or desired plan or course of proceeding and actions.
PROGRAM BUDGETA budget in which expenditures are based primarily on programs of work and secondarily on character and object budget. A program budget is a traditional type of budget that falls between the traditional character and object budget, on one hand, and the performance budget, on the other.
PROGRAMMED MAJOR MAINTENANCESee Planned or Programmed Maintenance.
PROGRAMMINGThe process of planning and organizing the quantitative physical requirements of resources needed to accomplish established goals. A program is an organized set of activities directed toward a common purpose or goal undertaken or proposed in support of an assigned area. It is characterized by a strategy for accomplishing a definite objective(s), which identifies the means of accomplishment, particularly in quantitative terms, with respect to staffing, materials, and facilities requirements. It normally includes an element of ongoing activity, and typically comprises technology- based activities and projects and supports an established level of reliability.
PROJECTA plan of work, job, assignment, or task.
PROPOSALAn offer. A proposal becomes a contract when the terms and conditions of the proposal have been accepted by the other party.
PRUNETo remove dead, diseased, unnecessary, or unwanted twigs, branches, lowers, fruits, and roots from plants for shaping or ornamental purposes.
PURCHASE ORDERA document that authorizes the delivery of specified merchandise or the rendering of certain services and the making of a charge for them.
PVPhotovoltaic, solar panels.
PVCPolyvinyl chloride, a plastic pipe commonly used for direct burial.
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QAQCQuality assurance and quality control.
QUALITYA description of the condition expected on completion of assigned work. Quality is derived from many factors, such as aesthetics and orderliness, health and cleanliness, safety, and properly functioning equipment and facilities, as well as conservation and sound environmental practices.
QUASI-ENDOWMENT FUNDSFunds that the governing board, rather than a donor or outside agency, has determined are to be retained and invested. The governing board has the right to decide at any time to expend such funds. These monies are sometimes referred to as funds functioning as endowment.
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RATE OR DOSAGEThese terms are synonymous. Rate is the preferred term and usually refers to the amount of active ingredient material applied to a unit area (such as 1 acre or 1,000 square feet), regardless of the percentage of the chemical in the carrier.
RCMReliability Centered Maintenance.
RCRAResource Conservation and Recovery Act under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, covers regulations dealing with solid waste, hazardous waste, universal waste, and underground storage tanks.
REACTIVE MAINTENANCEUnplanned maintenance of a nuisance nature requiring low levels of skill for correction. These problems are usually identified and reported by facilities users.
REAL PROPERTYLand, everything growing on it, and all improvements made to it. Usually includes rights to everything beneath the surface and at least some rights to the airspace above it.
REBARA steel bar that has ribs to provide greater bonding strength when used in reinforced concrete.
RECAPITALIZATION/REINVESTMENT RATEThe level of annual funding for facility renewal and deferred maintenance expressed as a percentage of facility replacement values. A facility, system, or component with existing deficiencies will deteriorate faster than a component that is in good condition. Altering the recapitalization/reinvestment rate has direct impact on the facility condition index and associated deferred maintenance levels over time.
RECEIPTSA term that, unless otherwise qualified, means cash received.
RECOMMISSIONINGApplying the building commissioning process to an existing building, or building subsystem, that has already gone through original commissioning, after substantial time has passed and owners’ uses or needs have changed since construction. Recommissioning should not require capital improvements.
RECOVERABLE EXPENDITURESAn expenditure made for or on behalf of another fund: or for a private individual firm, or corporation: that will subsequently be recovered in cash or its equivalent.
RECsRenewable energy credits.
RECYCLINGThe recovery of useful materials, such as paper, glass, plastic, and metals, from the trash to use to make new products, reducing the amount of new raw mate¬rials needed.
REFUNDAn amount paid back or credit allowed because of an overcollection or because of the return of an object sold.
REGULATIONS“Controlling human or societal behavior by rules or restrictions.” Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association. One can consider regulation as actions of conduct imposing sanctions (such as a fine).
REHABILITATIONThe restoration or improvement of deteriorated areas, structures, public facilities, or neighborhoods to bring them up to an acceptable standard for use.
REIMBURSEMENTCash or other assets paid back for work or services performed; repayment for expenditures made for or on behalf of another individual, firm, or corporation.
REMONTANTBlooming a second time in a season.
RENEWALThe periodic replacement of major components or infrastructure systems at or near the end of their useful life. Renewal work, such as tuck-pointing brickwork, ensures that facilities will function at levels commensurate with the institution’s academic priorities and missions.
REPAIR(S)Work that is performed to return equipment to service after a failure or to make its operation more efficient. The work restores a facility or component thereof to such condition that it may be effectively utilized for its designated purposes by overhauling, reprocessing, or replacing constituent parts or materials that have deteriorated by action of the elements or usage and have not been corrected through maintenance.
REPLACEMENTAn exchange of one fixed asset (i.e., a major building component or subsystem) for another that has the same capacity to perform the same function—for example, replacing a chiller with a like-sized unit.
REPLACEMENT COSTThe cost, as of a certain date, of a structure that can render similar service: but need not be of the same structural form: as the structure to be replaced.
REPLACEMENT CYCLEA regular cycle or schedule on which maintenance occurs— for example, repainting every seven years.
REPLACEMENT OF OBSOLETE ITEMSWork undertaken to bring a component or system into compliance with new codes or safety regulations or to replace an item that is unacceptable, inefficient, or for which spare parts can no longer be obtained.
REPOSE, Angle ofThe gradient or slope at which a given material will establish itself if dumped freely from grade.
REQUEST FOR PROPOSALSAn alternative or variation of “competitive bidding,” where interested contractors, designers, or vendors are asked to submit project work plans, and where cost is frequently not a primary consideration.
REQUEST FOR QUALIFICATIONSA process used by institutions wishing to identify potential consultants to provide assistance in completing specific tasks. Frequently used to narrow the potential field of architects and engineers to a “short list” of qualified respondents.
REQUISITIONA written demand or request, usually from one department to the purchasing officer or from one department to another department for a specified article or services.
RESERVEAn account that records a portion of the fund balance that is allocated or set aside for some future use and is thus not otherwise available.
RESIDUALA product that is capable of having a continued effect over a period of time, such as a pesticide.
RESIDUAL PESTICIDEA pesticide that can destroy pests or prevent them from causing disease, damage, or destruction for a specified duration past the time of application.
RESOURCESThe actual assets of an entity, such as cash, land, and buildings plus contingent assets such as estimated revenue applying to current fiscal year not accrued or collected.
RESTORATIONRevitalizing, returning, or replacing original attributes and amenities, such as natural biological productivity or aesthetic and cultural resources, that have been diminished or lost by past alterations, activities, or catastrophic events. Specific remedial actions might include removing fills, installing water treatment facilities, rebuilding deteriorated urban waterfront areas, rehabilitating strip- mined areas, reestablishing prairies, and so on.
RESTRICTED FUNDSFunds limited to a specific use by outside agencies or persons. These are to be distinguished from funds over which the institution has complete control or freedom of use.
RESURFACINGA supplemental surface or replacement placed on an existing surface to improve its surface conformation or increase its strength.
RETAINED EARNINGSThe accumulated earnings of an enterprise that have been retained in the fund and that are not reserved for any specific purpose.
RETAINING WALLA wall, either freestanding or laterally braced, that bears against an earth or other fill surface and resists lateral and other forces from the material in contact with the side of the wall.
RETROCOMMISSIONINGApplying the building commissioning process to an existing building, or subsystem of the building, that has not previously been commissioned. Retrocommissioning will often require capital improvements. Retrocommissioning can also be applied to an existing building or subsystem that has previously been commissioned if the construction project entails extensive and substantive alterations or wholesale replacement of previously commissioned items.
RFPRequest for proposals.
RFQRequest for qualifications.
RHIZOMEA prostrate, more or less elongated stem growing partly or completely beneath the surface of the ground and usually rooting at the nodes and becoming upcurved at the apex.
RIGHT OF WAYThe areas existing or acquired by permanent easement for highway, utility, or other purposes; also, the areas acquired by temporary easement during the time the easement is in effect.
RIPRAP(1) Irregularly broken and random-sized large pieces of quarry rock; individual stones ranging from very large (2 to 3 cubic yards, approximately 1.5 to 2.3 cubic meters) to very small (1/2 cubic foot, approximately 0.014 cubic meters); used for foundations and revetments. (2) A foundation or parapet of stones thrown together without any attempt at regular structural arrangement.
RISER(1) The vertical face of a step or stepped ramp. (2) In irrigation, a short piece of pipe used to connect the irrigation head with the water supply line.
ROADBEDThe graded portion of a highway within top and side slopes prepared as a foundation for the pavement structure and shoulder.
RODENTICIDEA substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate rodents.
ROLLINGCompacting turf or soils, usually by mechanical means; leveling uneven turf or soil surfaces.
ROOTThe descending axis of the plant, without nodes and internodes, that absorbs nutrients and moisture from the ground and may store food.
ROUTINE REPAIRSActions taken to restore a system or piece of equipment to its original capacity, efficiency, or capability. Routine repairs are not intended to increase significantly the capacity of the item involved. For example, replacing a failed boiler with a new unit of similar capacity would be a routine repair project. However, if the capacity of the new unit were double the capacity of the original unit, the cost of the extra capacity would have to be capitalized and would not be considered routine repair work.
RS MEANSA for-profit company in the business of providing critical cost information to the construction industry, as well as annual O&M costs to many types of organizations and institutions.
RWResidual waste, also known as special waste. Includes such items as used oil, asbestos, construction debris, lead-based paint contaminated debris, or other items that do not fall under hazardous or universal waste.
“REASONABLE MAN”The fictitious person used to measure the standard of care that must be exercised to avoid negligence.
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SADDLESafety equipment that is worn around the waist with loops for the legs of the climber. Originally made of rope with padding around the back and under the legs. Now made in various styles of canvas, nylon, and leather, equipped with D-rings or other means for attaching the climbing rope and/or buckstrap. Other rings or snap fasteners are used to attach a handsaw in scabbard, a paint can, and sometimes chisels and other tools for surgery and repair. Should be inspected daily for signs of damage or wear.
SANITARY SEWERA sewer intended to carry only domestic sewage.
SBSSick building syndrome.
SCHEDULESThe explanatory or supplementary statements that accompany the balance sheet or other principal statements that are periodically prepared from the accounting records.
SEAL COATA surface seal for application on asphalt surfaces on which chips of coarse sand or limestone are spread before the seal has lost its tack or stickiness.
SECONDARY CIRCULATIONThe portion of a building or floor required for access to some subdivision of space that is not defined as primary circulation. May or may not be surrounded by walls or furniture panels.
SECURITIESBonds, notes, mortgages, or other forms of negotiable or nonnegotiable instruments.
SEDIMENTDeposit made by suspended material settling out of a liquid.
SELECTIVE HERBICIDEA herbicide that is more toxic to some species of plants than others.
SERVICEAll support provided to the campus customers as needed and on request.
SHARPSContaminated object that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, and exposed ends of dental wires.
SHINNYMethod of climbing used when a tree has no limbs to climb on. Unlike climbing with spurs, in this method, the body is kept close to the trunk. First, the climber reaches high and grasps trunk or limb with both arms; then, pulling up with his or her arms, the climber arches the back and grasps the trunk with the legs. One leg goes around the opposite side of the trunk and the calf of the leg is pressed against the trunk. The other leg is placed with the knee and thigh against the trunk. The shinbone (hence, “shinny”) and ankle are placed against the near side of the trunk with the foot extending around opposite the knee. The climber grips the trunk with the legs to take the weight off the arms, which are extended as the body straightens and a fresh grip is taken. The climber repeats the process until he or she reaches a limb from which to work.
SHORELINEThe boundary line between a body of water and the land, measured on tidal waters as the mean highest high water mark and on nontidal waterways as the ordinary high water mark.
SHORT-TERM DEBTDebt that matures one year or less after the date of issuance.
SHOT POUCHA lead-filled throw weight used for placing a throw line into a tree. This device often replaces the older monkeyfist.
SHRUBA woody plant smaller at maturity than a tree and usually with several basal stems.
SHRUB BEDA collection of fairly low-growing woody plants that form a bed or planter, typically defined by a border.
SINKING FUNDCash or other assets, and the interest or other income earned from it, that are set apart for the retirement of a debt or for the protection of an investment in depreciable property.
SITE DRAINAGERemoving water from a site by surface or subsurface drainage.
SITE PLANA plan of a construction site showing the position and dimensions of existing structures or structures to be erected, and the dimensions and contours of the property and improvements.
SLOPE RATIOThe relation of horizontal distance to vertical rise or fall; for example, 2 feet horizontal to 1 foot vertical is designated 2 to 1 or 2:1.
SLUDGEThe solid part of sewage water treatment. Can be used as a soil amendment because of organic content and fertility.
SNATCH BLOCKA special block constructed so that the casing can be opened on one side to receive a loop of rope around the pulley. This configuration eliminates the need to thread the rope through the block. These blocks are used with a bull rope to “pull up” large sections of a tree during removal operations. The block is chained to the trunk. The rope is tied onto the limb, run through the crotch of the gin pole and down through the snatch block, and fastened to the grounds maintenance vehicle used to pull up the limb after it has been cut part way off. Once the limb is pulled up, it is completely cut off. Often a butt rope is used to help guide the limb as the vehicle slowly moves forward to let it down.
SNOW AND ICE REMOVALThe physical or chemical removal of accumulations of ice or snow from transportation or parking surfaces, often by means of one of the following:
  1. Sodium/magnesium chloride: a granular salt-based chemical sometimes applied to earthen paths and roads to settle dust. Also used as a deicing agent on pavement. This material is toxic to plants and should be applied with care in their proximity.
  2. Calcium chloride: a granular salt-based chemical sometimes applied to earthen paths and roads to settle dust. Also used as a deicing agent on pavement. This material is toxic to plants and should be applied with care in their proximity.
  3. Urea: a nitrogen-based fertilizer that is used as a deicing agent on pavement.
SNUBBINGTechnique used to control a work rope. The running end of the rope is given one or two turns around a limb or the trunk of the tree. The friction of the rope absorbs the pull of the limb being lowered to the ground so that the climber or ground worker can control a weight that could not be held with the arms alone. Care must be used so that the friction does not “burn” the rope. Snubbing is also used in “pulling up” limbs. In this case, the bull rope is pulled up a few inches at a time and the “snubber” takes up the slack and holds it while the workers who are pulling get a fresh grip or rest.
SODIUM/MAGNESIUM CHLORIDEA granular salt-based chemical sometimes applied to earthen paths and roads to settle dust. Also used as a deicing agent on pavement. This material is toxic to plants and should be applied with care in their proximity.
SOFTSCAPEA landscape term used for areas that are composed of lawn or ornamental plantings. Often absent of hardscape features.
SOIL AMENDMENTA chemical or mineral element added to the soil to improve soil characteristics, such as porosity, aeration, drainage, or moisture retention.
SOIL AUGERTool for boring into the ground. It is usually about 1-1/2 inches in diameter and 3 feet long and may be shaped to take a wooden T-handle that is about 2 feet long. It can also be made for use with a power drill. The soil auger is used to take soil samples, to check for fill or other changes in the normal soil profile that could affect aeration and drainage around and through the root system of an existing tree, or to make a quick check of a proposed planting site. It can be used to check for a suspended subsoil gas leak or to make holes for fertilizer, deep watering, or, when filled with peat moss, to improved aeration.
SOIL COMPACTIONThe process of increasing soil density primarily as a result of excessive wear. In compacted soils, particles are pressed or packed together with few large air pores or interstices.
SOIL CONDITIONERA material that when added to compacted soil, tends to make it loose, crumbly, or porous.
SOIL FERTILITYThe ability of a soil to supply nutrients in sufficient quantity to meet the growth requirements of plants when other growth factors are favorable.
SOLID WASTESee Municipal Solid Waste.
SOPStandard operating procedures manual.
SOURCE REDUCTION (or waste prevention)Designing products to reduce the amount of waste that will later need to be thrown away and also to make the resulting waste less toxic.
SPACE PLANNINGThe process of analyzing current and future requirements relative to physical assets (i.e., type, condition, size, capacity, with respect to their ability to support and advance programs and activities at a level deemed appropriate by appropriate parties in concert with associated regulations, codes, mandates, and acceptable levels of performance). Typically involves identifying each distinct type of activity covered by the program and defining the appropriate values relative to size, capacity, utilization rates, and so on.
SPCCSpill Prevention Control and Countermeasures Plan, a part of the Oil Prevention Regulation under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Requires the development of a written inventory and plan if the institution has great than 1,320 gallons of oil aboveground (including that found in transformers, elevators, used food oil, tanks, and drums—anything stored in quantities greater than 55 gallons). Few institutions are exempt from this regulation.
SPECIAL PROVISIONSSpecific directions, provisions, requirements, and revisions of the specifications peculiar to the work under consideration that are not satisfactorily provided for in the specifications. Special provisions set forth the final contractual intent as to the matter involved. The special provisions included in the contract shall not operate to annul those portions of the specifications with which they are not in conflict.
SPECIFICATIONSThe body of directions, provisions, and requirements authorized and printed by the contracting entity, together with written agreements and all documents of any description made or to be made pertaining to the method or manner of performing the work, the quantities, or the quality of materials to be furnished under the contract.
SPENDING POLICYIn investing for total return, the portion of earnings allocated for current operating purposes. It is expressed as a percentage of market value and is sometimes called the "payout rate." The term "earnings" includes the sum of net realized and unrealized appreciation or shrinkage in portfolio value plus dividend and interest income. A prudent spending policy would protect the endowment from loss of purchasing power before appropriating gains.
SPRINKLER OR IRRIGATION SPECIALISTA position that provides expertise in the installation and maintenance of irrigation systems. This position generally requires considerable education in hydraulics and a specified level of experience and/or certification.
SPURSTools used for climbing. Developed and used by line workers for climbing utility poles, these climbing irons are often worn by climbers for removing trees or in the event of emergency. Because the gaffs leave a wound in the tree at every step, they should not be used for trimming or repair work. Spurs are fastened to the inside of the leg below the knee with the straps at knee and ankle. The gaff is in position on the inside of the instep. The climbing technique with spurs is almost the opposite of that used by a climber who is shinnying up a tree. When climbing with spurs, the knee is inclined away from the trunk or limb to prevent the gaff from “cutting out.”
STANDARD COSTSA predetermined cost of performing an operation efficiently under reasonable and normal conditions. Normal conditions exist when there is an absence of extraordinary factors affecting the quality or quantity of the work performed, or the time or method of performing it.
STARSSustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating System, launched by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE).
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONSStatute declaring that no suit shall be maintained on a cause of action unless brought within a specified period of time after the right to bring suit accrues.
STERILANTA pesticide that kills all forms of a particular organism in a certain area.
STERILIZATIONThe act of treating an area with a chemical or other agent to kill every living organism.
STEWARDSHIPThe duties and responsibilities required to properly manage a property with regard to the environment and the rights of others. The role of guardian of the campus’s physical facilities assets and built environment.
STILLING BASINAn energy or velocity dissipater of water that uses a stilling pool for primary dissipation.
STOMATASmall openings, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems.
STORESGoods on hand in storerooms, subject to requisition and use.
STORM SEWERA sewer for conveying storm and surface water only.
STORMWATERWater that originates during precipitation events. May be harvested and recycled for landscape purposes.
STRATEGIC PLANNINGA method by which organizations are able to facilitate improvement to enhance productivity, communication, morale or motivation, team spirit, sense of purpose, and confidence. The plan relies on clear objectives with a common understanding by all the participants.
STRICT LIABILITYLiability without negligence.
STRUCTUREAnything constructed, installed or portable, the use of which requires a location on a parcel of land.
STUBShort piece of limb left when a limb or twig is removed by a pruner or a saw when using the three-cut method. Also used to describe the standing trunk after the foliage and limbwood have been “topped out.”
SUBBASEThe layer or layers of specified or selected material of designated thickness placed on a subgrade to support a rigid slab or base course.
SUBGRADE(1) The soil prepared and compacted to support a structure or a pavement system; the base portion of any surfaced area, the elevation of which is lower than that of the finished grade. (2) The elevation of the bottom of a trench in which a sewer or pipeline is laid.
SUBSOILThe bed or stratum of earth that lies immediately below the surface or topsoil.
SUBTITLE D WASTEAn EPA classification of solid waste, typically considered as municipal waste, excluding any type of hazardous, low-level radioactive or special handling waste.
SUCCESSION PLANNINGThe process of identifying critical or key positions in the organization and developing a plan to provide coverage for those positions in the event the present employee is unable to work for an extended period or leaves the organization altogether.
SUMP(1) A pit, tank, basin, or receptacle that receives sewage or water and must be emptied by mechanical means (pumping). (2) A reservoir sometimes forming part of a roof drain. (3) A depression in a roof deck where the roof drain is located.
SUPPORT MAINTENANCEDiscretionary work not required for the presentation or functioning of a building. May be operational (standby at a function such as graduation), minor trades work (hanging pictures), special event setups, or even minor alteration or construction. Support maintenance is often done to enhance an academic program, recruiting effort, or public relations event. It is also the “service” that the facilities department delivers for light customer service activities that every office-style building demands.
SURETY BONDA legal instrument under which one party agrees to answer to another party for the debt, default, or failure to perform of a third party.
SURPLUSSee Fund Balance or Retained Earnings.
SUSPENSE ACCOUNTAn account that carries charges or credits temporarily, pending the determination of the proper account or accounts to which they are to be posted.
SUSTAINABILITYThis term refers to a system, program, or condition that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It requires the reconciliation or balance of environmental, economic, and social demands. Used in reference to a program or site that is in ecological balance.
SWSolid waste. A general category under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that also includes categories of hazardous waste and universal waste. Under EPA’s definition, SW may be in liquid, gas, or solid form.
SWING SPACETemporary space dedicated to displaced workers until permanent space is finished.
SWINGBOARDA nautical term for a wooden seat used by a climber in place of a saddle or bowline when an extensive amount of work must be done. The seat or “swingboard” is put into a bowline or double-bowline (one loop goes around the waist). The free end is used to tie a tautline hitch on the up- rope so that the climber may control his or her position in the tree. Originally used aboard ship and adopted by early arborists.
SWPPStorm Water Pollution Prevention Plans, required by EPA when greater than 5 acres of soil is disturbed in a construction project.
SYNTHETIC MINOR OPERATING PERMITSimilar to a Title V permit, but with reduced reporting of air emissions, the operating permit program requires that certain sources obtain a permit that consolidates all of the applicable requirements for the facility into one document and submit those requirements to the state agency for a determination of applicability. The finding of determination is typically either a Synthetic Minor operating permit or a Title V permit.
SYSTEMIC PESTICIDEA chemical that is absorbed and translocated throughout the plant or animal, making it toxic to pests.
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TASK MAINTENANCEThe deployment of specifically trained crews that each perform specific groundskeeping tasks and that move from one area to another of a site, such as a park or campus, doing all work of a particular type as needed. Examples include a tree crew or an irrigation crew.
TASKSA combination of the operations and activities required to accomplish the work defined in the task descriptions.
TAUTLINE HITCHThe standard climbing knot used by arborists to tie in.
TAXONOMYThat branch of science dealing with description, naming, and classification of types or kinds of plants.
TCOTotal cost of ownership.
TEMPORARY LOANSShort-term obligations representing amounts borrowed for a short period of time and usually evidenced by notes payable or warrants payable. They may be unsecured or secured by specific revenues to be collected.
TERM ENDOWMENTFunds that donors or other outside agencies have contributed to an institution with certain terms or conditions attached and that, only upon the occurrence of a particular event or upon passage of a stipulated date, can be expended.
TERRESTRIAL(1) A plant growing in the air with its basal parts in wet or dry soil. (2) A term related to land.
THATCHAn intermingled layer of living and dead stems, leaves, and roots of grasses that develops between the layer of green vegetation and the soil surface.
THINNINGThe selective removal of branches in the crown by removing a branch at the point of attachment or to a large lateral. This process typically includes crown cleaning. It increases light penetration and air movement in the crown.
THREE-CUT METHODTechnique for removing limbs when pruning to prevent the limb from peeling the bark down the trunk and creating a larger wound. First, the limb is undercut about a foot from the trunk. The rule of thumb is to “cut until the saw pinches.” The next cut is made from the top a few inches farther out. If the limb is heavier than the climber can hold, a butt rope should be tied on and snubbed to the trunk or to another crotch nearby. This cut is made until the limb breaks off, leaving a stub or “plug.” The final cut is made close to the trunk to promote rapid healing of the wound. Because new growth takes place parallel to the sap flow, the flush cut heals easily from the edges. Very little healing will take place when a stub is left.
THROWING KNOTA knot made in the end of a light work rope (1-1/4 to 3/8 inch in diameter) or climbing rope (1/2-inch diameter) so that it may be thrown high into the tree or from one part of the tree to another. Weight is needed to carry the rope through foliage and let it drop down through a crotch to the ground. Two types of knots are used. The first is the “closed knot,” such as the monkey fist,that remains tied and weights the end of the rope as it is whipped through the crotch, gradually dropping the rope within reach. The second is the “open” or slipper knot, in which (a) the rope is wound onto the arm a sufficient number of turns, then (b) a half-dozen wraps are taken around the loops to hold them, and finally © a loop is pulled through the top of the loops. This loop becomes the throwing handle and pulls out (or is pulled out) once the rope is through the crotch. This action releases the wrapping turns, and the rope unwinds and falls to the ground (or within reach without the need of whipping a long length of rope through the crotch).
TIER 2 REPORTSEPCRA Title III annual report that is submitted to state and local emergency planning commission (LEPC) agencies. Must be based on actual chemical inventories at the institution and include any chemical at the institution over 10,000 lbs. (including salt and sand) and any chemical over the Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ) on the EPCRA List of Lists [a list of approximately 300 chemicals, of which sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, gasoline, and diesel/#2 fuel oil are the most commonly reported chemicals].
TILTHRefers to cultivated soil that is easily crumbled and has a good organic content or to the physical condition of the soil.
TIMBER-R-RThis warning cry of the woods is well known but is still functional in alerting people in the area that a tree, trunk, or large section is to be dropped. It is an important safety measure because the results of several tons of wood hitting the ground are unpredictable.
TIMEThis term represents the average time necessary for a qualified craftsperson or an adequately qualified individual working at a normal pace, following prescribed methods, working under capable supervision, and experiencing only normal delays to perform a defined amount of work of a specified quality.
TIME OF CONCENTRATIONThe time required for storm runoff to flow from the most remote point.
TITLE IIIA section of 1990’s Americans With Disabilities Act that deals specifically with how public accommodations provide goods and services to individuals with disabilities, on an equal basis with the non-disabled public.
TITLE V PERMITThe operating permit program requires that major industrial sources and certain other sources obtain a permit that consolidates all of the applicable requirements for the facility into one document. The purpose of Title V permits is to reduce violations of air pollution laws and improve enforcement of those laws. This also requires monthly or quarterly reporting of air emissions and occasional upgrades to the permit itself.
TOLERANCEThe relative capacity of a plant or species to withstand cold, heat, wind, sunlight, and so on.
TOOL ROOM COORDINATORA position that conducts inventory, maintenance, and distribution for a collective tool system.
TOP OUTTechnique involving the removal of brush and pole wood, leaving only the trunk and main scaffold of branches standing. This technique is used during storm emergencies so that once the broken tree is “safe,” the crew moves on to another emergency. It may also be used when the trunks are to be removed, stumps and all, by bulldozer as part of a construction process. Finally, crews may be organized for greater efficiency by using a task force of climbers with a tower truck to top out and another crew with a crane truck to fell the trunk and load the logs.
TOPDRESSINGSpreading a thin layer of material over an existing area of turf. This layer may include inert materials, such as good-quality sand or calcined clay, and mixtures of inert materials with organic materials, such as compost. Topdressing is frequently used on golf course greens and other sports fields that require a smooth surface.
TOPIARYThe cutting and trimming of shrubs and trees, especially evergreens, into odd or ornamental shapes, thus producing an effect entirely different from that produced by the natural growing habits of the plant. A formal pruning method.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYThe process of determining the configuration of a surface, including its relief and the locations of its natural and manmade features, usually recorded on a drawing showing surface variations by means of contour lines indicating height above sea level.
TOPPERA term (often used in a derogatory manner) for one who indiscriminately prunes the tops out of trees.
TOPPINGCutting back limbs to a stub, bud, or lateral branch that is not large enough to assume the role as the terminal branch. Sometimes referred to as heading back, stubbing, pollarding, or hatracking.
TOPSOIL(1) The surface or upper layer of soil, as distinct from the subsoil; usually contains more organic matter. (2) A broad term for imported soil for landscape purposes.
TORTAny civil wrong, not arising out of contract, for which the law provides a remedy, such as negligence, defamation, assault and battery, and so on.
TORT FEASORA person or entity who commits or is guilty of a tort.
TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO)/LIFE-CYCLE COST MANAGEMENTA dollar per square foot value associated with a facility. It is a calculation of all facility-specific costs (not including furnishings or nonfacility-specific equipment) divided by estimated life span of the building (30 or 50 years) and the total gross area. Facility-specific costs include all construction, preservation, maintenance, and operations costs. A strategic asset management practice considers all costs of operations and maintenance in addition to acquisition costs. TCO, therefore, includes the sum total of the present value of all direct, indirect, recurring, and nonrecurring costs incurred or estimated to be incurred in the design, development, production, operation, maintenance, and renewal of a facility, structure, or asset over its anticipated life span. (This total is inclusive of site/utilities, new construction, deferred maintenance, preventive/routine maintenance, renovation, compliance, capital renewal, and occupancy costs. Land values are specifically excluded.)
TOTAL RETURNThe sum of net realized and unrealized appreciation or shrinkage in portfolio value plus yield (dividend and interest income).
TOXICA poisonous chemical factor that is injurious to animals or plants through contact or systemic action.
TRACINGTrimming the edges of a wound with a hooked knife, sometimes a mallet and chisel as well, back to “tight” bark. All loose ends should be removed. This technique not only removes shelter for insects and lodging places for fungus spores but also removes the temptation for children to grasp the loose end and rip loose a greater piece. General practice indicates that tracing the wound to an oval with “pointing” at top and bottom makes a good-looking job. Recent studies of healing, however, indicate that rounder tracings heal faster.
TRADE-SPECIFIC POSITION DESCRIPTIONA detailed list of the tasks required of an employee at a prescribed skill level within a specific trade. This version of a Position Description is sometimes referred to as a Classification Spec and is often used as a complement to the more detailed Non-Trade-Specific Position Descriptions and includes specific skills and abilities that a tradesperson would develop through education or job assignment within their specific field.
TRANSFERSThe moving of assets, liabilities, and balances from one fund group to another.
TRANSLOCATEDThe process by which items such as a pesticide are moved in a plant or animal from the site of entry.
TRANSPIRATIONThe process by which a plant gives off water in vapor form into the atmosphere, mainly through its stomata.
TREEA woody plant of considerable stature at maturity with one or a few main trunks.
TREE SPECIALISTA position that provides considerable expertise in the field of tree maintenance practices, including but not limited to pruning, planting, pest and disease diagnosis, and fertilization. Typically, this position functions as the arborist for an organization. This position generally requires extensive education, experience, and certification in the field of arboriculture.
TRIAL BALANCEA list of the balances of the accounts in a ledger kept by double entry with the debit and credit balances shown in separate columns. The totals of the debit and credit columns are equal.
TRIMMERA slang term used for one who prunes trees.
TRUNK INJECTIONSFertilizer injected directly into the trunk of a tree.
TSCAToxic Substances Control Act under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
TUBERA thickened subterranean stem; typically has numerous eyes, such as a potato.
TURFAn area completely covered with a thick mat of grass plants, often used for sports fields and park areas. Turf areas are mowed with standard mowing equipment.
TURF RENOVATIONSA broad term used to describe various methods used to improve the condition of an area of turf.
TWO-PIPE SYSTEMSA heating and cooling system for a building that requires a switch from either heating or cooling as the seasons change. On the contrary, a four-pipe system can be used to heat or cool alternatively without any switchover. A two-pipe system creates difficulties for maintenance staff because once it is switched from heating to cooling in the spring, an unseasonably cold day can occur, making building occupants cold without the ability to adjust their thermostats for increased heating.
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ULUnderwriters Laboratory.
UNAPPROPRIATED BUDGET SURPLUSIf the fund balance at the close of the preceding year is not included in the annual budget, the term designates that portion of the current fiscal year's estimated revenues that has not been appropriated. If the fund balance of the preceding year is included, the term designates the estimated fund balance at the end of the current fiscal year.
UNDESIGNATED FUNDSUnrestricted monies available for any purpose.
UNEARNED OR DEFERRED REVENUESee Deferred (or unearned) Revenue.
UNENCUMBERED APPROPRIATIONSThe portion of an appropriation not yet expended or encumbered.
UNIT COSTA term used in cost accounting to denote the cost of producing a unit of product or rendering a unit of service.
UNIT OF WORKThe quantification, in standard units of measurement, such as individual numbers, acres, miles, square feet, or square yards, of the amount (volume) of work for which the standard applies.
UNIVERSAL WASTEThis is a subset of hazardous waste and will vary by state. At a minimum, universal waste will include fluorescent lamps and bulbs, mercury-containing devices (such as thermostats), pesticides, and rechargeable batteries (NiCd, etc.).
UNIVERSAL WASTE MANIFESTA shipping document required for the management and shipment of universal waste from the generator site (institution) to the final destination (recycling facility).
UNRESTRICTED FUNDSMonies provided to the institution with no restrictions on their use.
UNSCHEDULED/UNPLANNED MAINTENANCERequests for system or equipment repairs that, unlike preventive maintenance work, are unscheduled and unanticipated. Service calls generally are received when a system or component has failed or perceived to be working improperly. If the problem has created a hazard or involves an essential service, an emergency response may be necessary. If the problem is not critical, a routine response is adequate. Reactive or emergency corrective work activities occur in the current budget cycle or annual program. Activities may range from unplanned maintenance of a nuisance nature requiring low levels of skill for correction, to nonemergency tasks involving a moderate to major repair or correction requiring skilled labor, to emergency unscheduled work that requires immediate action to restore services, remove problems that could interrupt activities, or protect life and property.
UPCUniform Plumbing Code.
UREAA nitrogen-based fertilizer that is used as a deicing agent on pavement.
USED OILOil from the facility that has been tested and does not contain hazardous contaminants such as gasoline or antifreeze. Used oil may be recycled or burned in a licensed used oil burner.
USTUnderground Storage Tanks under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These are different from buried tanks in that they have substances other than heating oil to be used on the campus. Typically, a UST will have gasoline or diesel fuel for vehicles or #2 fuel that is dual use (heating oil and diesel fuel for vehicles). Separate regulations apply to USTs, although these must be listed on any SPCC plan.
UTILIZATION RATEAn indicator used to determine how efficiently available space is being used. Usually time-based in terms of month, quarter, or year. Occupied Space/Facility Usable Area
UWUniversal Waste under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
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VACUUM BREAKERA device that will prevent the creation of a backflow causing vacuum in a water supply system.
VALUE ENGINEERINGA creative, function-oriented approach to optimize total cost, where a group of independent experts reviews a project design at various stages. Typically employed when budget is an issue. May also be called VM or value management.
VALVEA device that regulates the low of a fluid.
VALVE, Check (Back-Pressure Valve, Reflux Valve)An automatic valve that permits liquid to flow in only one direction.
VANDALISMThe willful or malicious destruction or defacement of property.
VAVVariable air volume.
VESee Value Engineering.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATIONThe propagation of plants through asexual means, such as budding, cuttings, division, grating, layering, and so on; distinct from sexual production by seed or spores or bulbs.
VERTICAL MOWING, VERTI-CUTTINGCutting slices in the turf with a machine that has blades mounted in a vertical manner on a rotating shaft. This practice is considered an important method of thatch reduction.
VFDVariable frequency drive.
VIABLEFertile, in terms of a plant’s capacity to germinate or grow; alive. A viable seed will sprout under moist or other special conditions, according to the type of seed.
VINEA plant climbing or scrambling on some other support. Such a plant may attach itself by tendrils or aerial roots.
VOCVolatile organic compounds, at least responsible for environmental issues both inside and outside of buildings.
VOID AREASRooms that are more than one story in height. Void areas exist on upper floors such as atriums, light wells, or lobbies.
VOUCHERA written document that evidences the propriety of transactions and usually indicates the accounts in which they are to be recorded.
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WAIVER OF LIENThe voluntary relinquishment of one’s lien rights.
WANWide area network.
WASTE PREVENTIONSee Source Reduction.
WATER DEPENDENTA use or activity that can be carried out only on, in, or adjacent to a water area because the use requires access to the water body for transportation, recreation, or energy production or as a source of water.
WATER LANCETool for watering tree roots below the surface of sod or packing. Made of 1/2-inch pipe with a faucet handle and a T-handle capped at one end and equipped with a fitting for a power sprayer or garden hose at the other. With a sprayer, liquid fertilizer can be applied directly to the feeder root zone.
WATER RELATEDUses that are not directly dependent on access to a water body but that provide goods or services that are directly associated with water-dependent land or waterway use. If such uses are not located adjacent to water, the result is a public loss of quality in the goods or services offered. Except as necessary for water-dependent or water-related uses or facilities, residences, parking lot spoil and sump sites, roads and highways, restaurants, businesses, factories, and trailer parks are not generally considered dependent on or related to water location needs.
WATER TABLEThe upper surface of groundwater.
WAYFINDINGTerm applied to signage and other features designed to help individuals “find their way” to specific campus locations.
WBSSee Work Breakdown Structure.
WEDGE AND SLEDGETechnique for removing stumps. The roots are chopped back with 5-pound axes, then slabs are split off using iron wedges and 12-pound sledges. This technique is often much harder than it sounds. Some stumps are twisted, are full of rocks or even iron nails, or present other challenges. In most areas, this method has been replaced by the use of power stump cutters.
WEEDA plant growing where it is not desired; in other words, a weed is a plant out of place. In practice, we understand a weed as wild, not intentionally sown or planted. A plant that grows between cultivated plants and is harmful because of competition for light, moisture, and nutrients.
WEED CONTROLThe process of chemically or physically inhibiting weed growth and limiting undesirable plants from areas that may include turf, shrub beds, or ground cover beds or within other landscape or hardscape features.
WEEP HOLE(1) A small opening in a wall or window member through which accumulated condensation or water may drain to the building exterior, as from the base of a cavity wall, a wall lashing, or a skylight. (2) A hole near the bottom of a retaining wall, backfilled with gravel or other free- draining material, to permit water to drain to the outside of the wall and prevent the buildup of pressure behind the wall.
WET FEETPlant roots trying to grow in soil that is continually saturated with water. Although bog plants can usually survive under such conditions, most garden plants will perish.
WETLANDSLand areas where excess water is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living at the soil surface. Wetland soils retain sufficient moisture to support aquatic or semi¬aquatic plant life. In marine and estuarine areas, wetlands are bounded at the lower extreme by extreme low water; in freshwater areas, by a depth of 6 feet. The areas below wetlands are submerged lands.
WETTING AGENTA substance capable of lowering the surface tension of liquids, facilitating wetting of solid surfaces and permitting penetration of liquids into the capillaries.
WIDOWMAKERUsually the result of poor planning when felling trees, this name is given to a tree that does not fall clear to the ground when cut but catches the twigs and branches (hangs up) in a nearby tree or trees. This situation can occur because of improper notching at an unseen rotted spot, an unexpected gust of wind, or similar unexpected circumstances. The tree is a menace if left hanging and is more dangerous than ever to the workers who must finish removing the tree. Such trees often result from storm breakage.
WILDFLOWERSA broad term for plantings of wild or uncultivated plants, typically sown from seed and allowed to naturalize.
WINTERIZEA broad term used to describe tasks associated with preparing the landscape for the extremes of winter. Typically, this term refers to the required purging of the subterranean water lines of an irrigation system to avoid freezing, but it could include other activities, such as mulching beds and withholding fertilizer.
WOOD PRESERVATIVEA chemical used to prevent or retard the decay of wood, especially by fungi or insects.
WOODYA perennial stem that has had time to produce woody tissue, a characteristic bark that is often gray to tan, and buds that produce the next season’s growth.
WOODY PLANTA plant that develops woody tissue, retaining its essential shape from season to season, with normal growth. The opposite of a herbaceous plant, the top of which dies to the ground in winter.
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTUREA granular listing of projects that permits effective scheduling of tasks and measurement of performance.
WORK IN PROCESSThe cost of partially completed products manufactured or processed. An example would be a partially completed printing job. Also known as Work in Progress.
WORK ORDERA written order, authorizing and directing a certain task to be performed, that is, issued to the person who will direct the work. Among the items of information shown on the order are the nature and location of the job, specifications of the work to be performed, and a job number that is referred to in reporting the amount of labor, materials, and overhead.
WORK ORDER SYSTEMA system of initiating and prioritizing maintenance tasks in which precise instructions for commencement of work, cost control elements, and the feedback mechanism for department record keeping are present.
WORK PROGRAMA description of what work is to be done, how much is to be done, and when it is to be accomplished.
WORK STANDARDSThe level to which work should be performed to accomplish assigned tasks in the most efficient manner that produces both quality and quantity.
WORK UNITA fixed quantity that will consistently measure work effort expended in the performance of an activity or in the production of a commodity.
WORKING CAPITALCurrent fund cash, or current fund assets converted to cash, that will be used to liquidate current fund liabilities in a normal operating cycle: typically one year.
WORKSTATIONAny type of space designated for occupant usage (either open or enclosed area) where an occupant can be seated.
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XERISCAPINGThe process of landscaping with minimal water use. It is based on the use of water-efficient plant materials (preferably native) strategically placed for best utilization.
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ZBBZero-based budget.
ZONE MAINTENANCEThe routine assignment of the same crew, comprising the same people and supervision, to the same specific area of a site, such as a park, campus, or portion of campus, for which they have the responsibility to perform all maintenance in its zone.
ZONING, AestheticThe regulation of property by zoning in the interest of beauty.